by Dr. Carroll Quigley 
ISBN 0913022-14-4
Page 249
     Four chief reasons have been given for the intervention of the 
United States in World War I.
1) to secure "freedom of the seas" from German submarine attacks;
2)British propaganda;
3) a conspiracy by international bankers and munitions manufacturers 
either to protect their loans to the Entente Powers or their wartime 
profits from sales to these Powers;
4) Balance of Power principles to prevent Great Britain from being 
defeated by Germany
Page 250
     The fact that German submarines were acting in retaliation for 
the illegal British blockades of the continent of Europe and British 
violations of  international law and neutral rights on the high seas.
     Britain was close to defeat in April 1917 and on that basis the 
United States entered the war. The unconscious assumption by American 
leaders that an Entente victory was inevitable was at the bottom of 
their failure to enforce the same rules of  neutrality and 
international law against Britain as against Germany. They constantly 
assumed that British violations of these rules could be compensated 
with monetary damages while German violations of these rules 
must be resisted by force if necessary. Since they could not admit 
this unconscious assumption or publicly defend the legitimate basis of 
international power politics on which it rested, they finally went to 
war on an excuse which was legally weak, "the assertion of a right to 
protect belligerent ships on which Americans saw fit to travel and the 
treatment of armed belligerent merchantmen as peaceful vessels. Both 
assumptions were contrary to  reason and to settled law and no other 
professed neutral advanced them."
     The Germans at first tried to use the established rules of 
international law regarding destruction of merchant vessels. This 
proved so dangerous because the British instructions to merchant ships 
to attack submarines. American protests reached a peak when the 
Lusitania was sunk in 1915. The Lusitania was a British merchant 
vessel constructed as an auxiliary cruiser carrying a  cargo of 2,400 
cases of rifle cartridges and 1250 cases of shrapnel with orders to 
attack German submarines whenever possible. The incompetence of the 
acting captain contributed to the heavy loss of life as did also a 
mysterious second explosion after the German torpedo struck. The 
captain was on course he had orders to avoid; he was running at 
reduced speed, he had an inexperienced  crew; the portholes had been 
left open; the lifeboats had not been swung out; and no  lifeboat 
drills had been held. 
Page 251
     The propaganda agencies of the Entente Powers made full use of 
the occasion. The Times of London announced that 80% were citizens of 
the US (actually 15.6%); the British manufactured and distributed a 
medal which they pretended had been awarded to the submarine crew by 
the German government; a French paper published a picture of the 
crowds in Berlin at the outbreak of war in 1914 as a picture of 
Germans "rejoicing" at the news of the sinking of the Lusitania.
     The US protested violently against the submarine warfare while 
brushing aside German arguments based on the British blockade. It was 
so irreconcilable in these protests that Germany sent Wilson a note 
which promised that "in the future merchant vessels within and without 
the war zone shall not be sunk without warning and without 
safeguarding human lives unless these ships try to escape or offer 
resistance. In return, the German government hoped that the US would 
put pressure on Britain to follow the established rules of 
international law in regard to blockade and freedom of the sea. Wilson 
refused to do so. It became clear to the Germans that they would be 
starved into defeat unless they could defeat Britain first by  
unrestricted submarine warfare. Since they were aware this would 
probably bring the US into  the war against them, they made another 
effort to negotiate peace before resorting to it. It was rejected by 
the Entente Powers on Dec. 27 and unrestricted submarine attacks were 
resumed. Wilson broke off diplomatic relations and the Congress 
declared war on April 3, 1917.
Page 252
     Britain was unwilling to accept any peace which would  leave 
Germany supreme on the continent or in a position to resume the 
commercial, naval, and colonial rivalry which had existed before 1914.
Page 253
     The Vatican, working through Cardinal Pacelli (later Pope Pius 
XII) sought a negotiated peace. 
     On Oct 5, a German note to Wilson asked for an armistice based on 
the basis of the Fourteen Points which promised the end of secret 
diplomacy, freedom of the seas; freedom of commerce; disarmament; a 
fair settlement of colonial claims, with  the interests of the native 
peoples receiving equal weight with the titles of the Imperialist 
Powers; the evacuation of Russia, the evacuation and restoration 
of Belgium, the  evacuation of France and the restoration of her 
Alsace-Lorraine as in 1870.
Page 254
     The Entente Supreme War Council refused to accept the Fourteen 
Points as the basis for peace until Colonel House threatened that the 
US would make a separate peace with Germany. 
Page 255
     Wilson had clearly promised that the peace treaty would be 
negotiated and based on the Fourteen Points but the Treaty of 
Versailles was imposed without negotiation and the Fourteen Points 
fared very poorly in its provisions. The subsequent claim of the 
German militarists that the German Army was never defeated but was 
"stabbed in the back" by the home front through a combination of 
international Catholics, international Jews, and international 
Socialists have no merit whatever. 
     On all fronts, almost 13 million men in the various armed forces 
died and the war destroyed over $400 billion in property at a time 
when the value of every object in France and Belgium was not  worth 
over $75 billion. 
Page 256
     In July 1914, the military men were confident that a decision 
would be reached in six months. This belief was supported by the 
financial experts who, while greatly underestimating the cost of  
fighting, were confident financial resources would be exhausted in six 
months. By financial resources, they meant "gold reserves." These were 
clearly limited; all the Great Powers were on the gold standard. 
However each country suspended  the gold standard at the outbreak of 
war.  This removed the automatic limitation on the supply of paper 
money. The each country proceeded to pay for the war by borrowing from 
the banks. The banks created the money which they lent my merely 
giving the government a deposit of any size against which the 
government could draw checks. The banks were no longer limited in the 
amount of credit they could create because they no longer had to  pay 
out  gold for checks on demand. This the creation of money in the form 
of credit by the banks was limited only by the demands of its 
borrowers. Naturally, as governments borrowed to pay for their needs, 
private businesses borrowed to be able to  fill the  
government's orders. The percentage of outstanding bank notes covered 
by gold reserves steadily fell and the percentage of bank credit 
covered by either gold or bank notes fell even further. 
     Naturally, when the supply of money was increased in this fashion 
faster than the supply of goods, prices rose because  a larger supply 
of money was competing for a smaller supply of goods. People received 
money for making capital goods, consumer goods and munitions but they 
could spend their money only to buy consumer goods. The problem of 
public debt became steadily worse because governments were financing 
such a large part of their activities by bank credit. Public debts 
rose by 1000 percent. 
Page 259
     Governments began to regulate imports and exports to ensure that 
necessary materials stayed in the country and did not go to enemy 
states. This led to the British blockade of Europe. 
Page 251
     The results of the blockade were devastating. Continued for 
nine months after the armistice, it caused the deaths of 800,000 
persons, reparations took 108,000 horses, 205,000 cattle, 426,000 
sheep and 240,000 fowl. 
Page 262
     Countries engaged in a variety  of activities designed to 
regulate the flow of information which involved censorship, propaganda 
and curtailment of civil liberties.
Page 263
     The War Propaganda Bureau was able to control almost all 
information going to the American press.
     The Censorship and Propaganda bureaus worked together. The former 
concealed all stories of Entente violations of the laws of war or of 
the rules of humanity while the Propaganda Bureau widely publicized 
the violations and crudities of the Central Powers. The German 
violation of Belgian neutrality was constantly bewailed,while nothing 
was said of the  Entente violation of Greek neutrality. A great deal 
was made of the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia while the Russian 
mobilization which had precipitated the war was hardly mentioned. In 
the Central Powers a great deal was made of the Entente encirclement 
while nothing was said of the Kaiser's demands for "a place in the 
sun" of the High Command's refusal to renounce annexation of any part 
of Belgium.
     Manufacture of outright lies by propaganda agencies was 
infrequent and the desired picture of the enemy was built up by a 
process of selection and distortion of evidence until, by 1918,many in 
the West regarded the Germans as bloodthirsty and sadistic militarists 
while the Germans regarded the Russians as "subhuman monsters." A 
great deal was made, especially by the British, of "atrocity" 
propaganda; stories of German mutilation of bodies, violation of 
women, cutting off a  children's hands, desecration of churches, and 
crucifixions of Belgians were widely believed in the West by 1916. In 
1917, Henry Carter is created a story that the  Germans were cooking 
human bodies to extract glycerine and produced pictures to prove it. 
Again, photographs of mutilated bodies  in a Russian anti-Semitic 
outrage in 1905 were circulated as pictures of Belgians in 1915. There 
were several reasons for the use of such atrocity stories:   
a) to build up the fighting spirit of the mass army;
b) to stiffen civilian morale;
c) to encourage enlistments;
d) to increase subscriptions for war bonds;
e) to justify one's own breaches of international law;
f) to destroy the chances of negotiating peace or to justify a severe 
final peace;
g) to win the support of the neutrals. 
     The relative innocence and credulity of the average person who 
was not yet immunized to propaganda assaults through mediums of mass 
communication in 1914 made the use of such stories relatively 
effective. But the discovery in the period after 1919 that they had 
been hoaxed gave rise to a skepticism toward all government 
communications which was especially noticeable in the Second World 
Page 267
     The criticisms of the peace settlements was as ardent from the 
victors as from the vanquished aimed at the terms which were neither 
unfair nor ruthless. The causes of the discontent rested on the 
procedures which were used rather than the terms themselves. Above 
all, there was discontent at the contrast between the procedures which 
were used  and the procedures which pretended to be used, as well as 
between the high-minded principles which were supposed to be applied 
and those which really were applied.
Page 268
     When it became clear that they were to be imposed rather than 
negotiated, that the Fourteen Points had been lost in the confusion, 
that the terms had been reached by a process of secret negotiations 
from which the smaller nations had been excluded, there was a 
revulsion against the treaties. By 1929, most of the Western World had 
feelings of guilt and shame whenever they thought of the Versailles 
Treaty. In England, the same groups, often the same people, who had 
made the wartime propaganda and the peace settlements were loudest in 
their complaint that the latter had fallen far below the ideals of the 
former while all the while their real aims were to use power politics 
to the benefit of Britain.  
     The peace settlements were made by an organization which  was 
chaotic and by a procedure which was fraudulent. None of this was 
deliberate. It arose rather from weakness and ignorance, from a 
failure to decide on what principles it would be based. 
Page 269
     Since the Germans had been promised the right to negotiate, it 
became clear that the terms could not first be made the subject of 
public compromise. Unfortunately, by the time the victorious Great 
Powers realized all this and decided to make the terms by  secret 
negotiations among themselves, invitations had already been sent to 
all the victorious  powers to come to the conference. As a solution to  
this embarrassing situation, the  peace treaty was made on two levels. 
On one level, in the full glare of  publicity, the Inter-Allied 
Conference became the  Plenary Peace 
Conference  and with the considerable fanfare, did nothing. ON 
the other level, the Great Powers  worked out their  peace terms in 
secret and  when they were ready, imposed them simultaneously on the 
conference and on the Germans. This had not been intended. It was not 
clear to anyone just what was being done. 
Page 271
     At all these meetings, as at the Peace Conference itself, the 
political leaders were assisted by groups of experts and interested 
persons. Many of the experts were members associates of the 
international banking fraternity. In every case  but one, where a 
committee of experts submitted a unanimous report, the Supreme Council 
accepted its recommendation. The one case where a report was not 
accepted was concerned with the Polish corridor, the same issue which 
led to the Second World War where the experts were much harsher on 
Germany than the final decision of the politicians.  
Page 272
     The German delegation offered to accept the disarmament 
sections and reparations if the Allies would withdraw any statement 
that Germany had, alone, caused the war and would re-admit Germany to  
the  world's  markets. 
Page 273
     The Allies answer accused the Germans of sole guilt in causing 
the war and of inhuman practices during it. The Germans voted to sign 
if the articles on war guilt and war criminals could be struck from 
the treaty.. When the Allies refused these concessions, the Catholic 
Center Party voted 64-14 not to sign. The High Command of the German 
army ordered the Cabinet to sign. The Treaty of Versailles was signed 
by all the delegations except the Chinese in protest against the 
disposition of the prewar German concessions in Shantung.
Page 274
     No progress was possible in Hungary without some solution of the 
agrarian question and the peasant discontent arising from 
monopolization of the land. 
     The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (acting on behalf of 
France's greatest industrialist, Eugene Schneider) made a deal with 
the Hungarians that if they would sign the Treaty of Trianon and give 
Schneider control  of the Hungarian state railways, the port of 
Budapest and the Hungarian General Credit Bank, France would 
eventually make Hungary one of the mainstays of  its anti-German bloc 
in Eastern Europe and, at the proper time, obtain a drastic revision 
of the Treaty of Trianon. Paleologue received his reward from 
Schneider. He was  made director  of Schneider's personal holding 
     The Treaty of Sevres with Turkey was never signed because of the 
scandal caused by the Bolsheviki publication of the secret treaties 
regarding the Ottoman Empire, since these treaties contrasted so 
sharply with the expressed war aims of the Allies. 
     The British felt that richer prospects were to be obtained from 
the Turkish sultan. In particular, the French were prepared to support 
the claims of Standard Oil to such concessions while the British were 
prepared to support Royal Dutch Shell.
Page 277
     The chief territorial disputes arose over the Polish corridor. 
France's Foch wanted to give all of East Prussia to Poland. Instead, 
the experts gave Poland access to the sea by severing East Prussia 
from the rest of Germany by creating a Polish corridor in the valley 
of the Vistula. However, the city of Danzig was clearly a German city 
and Lloyd George refused to give it  to POland. Instead, it was a made 
a free city under the protection of the League of Nations. 
Page 279
     The most violent controversies arose in regard to the boundaries 
of Poland. Of these, only that with Germany was set by the Treaty of 
Versailles. The Poles refused to accept their other frontiers and by  
1920 were at war  with Lithuania over Vilna, with Russia over the  
eastern border, with the Ukrainians over Galaicia, and with 
Czechoslovakia over Teschen. 
Page 280
     These territorial disputes are of importance because they 
continued to lacerate relationships between neighboring states until 
well into the period of World War II. There were 1,000,000 Germans 
living in Poland, 550,000 in Hungary, 3,100,000 in Czechoslovakia, 
about 700,000 in Romania, 500,000  in Yugoslavia and 250,000 in Italy. 
To protect these minorities, the Allied Powers forced the new states 
to sign treaties grating a certain minimum political rights guaranteed 
by the League of Nations with no power to enforce observation of them.
Page 282
     The French were torn between a desire to obtain as large a 
fraction as possible  of Germany's payments and a desire to pile on 
Germany such a crushing burden of indebtedness that Germany would be 
ruined beyond the point where it could threaten French security again. 
     A compromise originally suggested by John Foster Dulles was 
adopted by  which Germany was forced to admit an unlimited, 
theoretical obligation to pay  but was actually bound to pay  for only 
a limited list of ten categories of obligations with pensions being 
larger than the preceding nine categories together. All reparations 
were wiped out in the financial debacle of 1931-1932.
Page 283
     Britain had obtained all her chief ambitions. The German navy was 
at the bottom of Scapa Flow scuttled by the the Germans themselves;
the German merchant fleet was scattered, captured, destroyed; the 
German colonial rivalry was ended and its areas occupied; the German 
commercial rivalry was crippled by the loss of its patents and 
industrial techniques, the destruction of all its commercial outlets 
and banking connections throughout the world, and the loss of its 
rapidly growing prewar markets. France on the other hand, had not 
obtained the one thing it wanted: security.
SECURITY 1919-1935
Page 287
     The British governments of the Right began to follow a double 
policy: a public policy in which they spoke loudly in support of the 
foreign policy  of the Left; and a secret policy in which they 
supported the foreign policy of the Right. Thus the stated policy was 
based on support of the League of Nations and of disarmament yet the 
real policy was quite different. While openly supporting Naval 
disarmament, Britain signed a secret agreement with France which 
blocked disarmament and signed an agreement with Germany which 
released her from her naval disarmament in 1935. After 1935, the 
contrast between the public and secret policy became so sharp that 
Lord Halifax called it "dyarchy." 
Page 289
     The British Right forced France to give away every advantage 
which it held  over Germany. Germany was allowed to rearm in 1935, 
allowed to remilitarize the Rhineland in 1936. Finally, when all had 
been lost, public opinion forced the British government to abandon the 
Right's policy of appeasement and adopt the old French policy of 
resistance made on a poor issue (Poland 1939)
     In France, as in Britain, there appeared a double policy. While 
France continued to talk of collective  security, this was largely for 
public consumption for in fact she had no policy independent of 
Britain's policy of appeasement. 
Page 290
     War was not outlawed but merely subjected to certain procedural 
delays in making it, nor were peaceful procedures for settling 
international disputes made compulsory. 
     The Covenant had been worded by a skillful British lawyer, Civil 
Hurst, who filled it with loopholes cleverly concealed under a mass 
of impressive verbiage so that no  state's freedom of action was 
vitally restricted. 
Page 293
     The Locarno Pacts, which were presented at the time throughout 
the English-speaking world as a sensational contribution to the peace  
and  stability of Europe, really formed the background for the events 
of 1938 when Czechoslovakia was destroyed at Munich. When the 
guarantee of Locarno became due in 1936, Britain dishonored its 
agreement, the Rhine was remilitarized and the way was open for 
Germany to move eastward. 
     Poland protested violently at the refusal to guarantee her 
Page 294 
     France agreed to an extension of a multilateral agreement by 
which all countries could renounce the use of war as an instrument of 
national policy. The British government reserved certain areas, 
notably the Middle East, where it wished to be able to wage wars which 
could not be termed self-defence in a strict sense. The US also made 
reservation preserving its right to make war under the Monroe 
doctrine. The net result was that only aggressive war was to be 
renounced. The Kellogg-Briand Pact took one of the first steps toward 
destroying the legal distinction between war and peace, since the 
Powers, having renounced the use of war, began towage wars without 
declaring them as was done by Japan in China in 1937, by Italy in 
Spain in 1936 and by everyone in Korea in 1950. 
Page 296
     The outlawry of war was relatively meaningless without some 
sanctions that could compel the use of peaceful methods. Efforts in 
this direction were nullified by Britain. 
Page 303
     Disarmament suggestions of the Soviet representative, Litvinoff, 
providing for immediate and complete disarmament of every country, was 
denounced by  all. A substitute draft provided that the most heavily 
armed states would disarm by 50%, the less heavily-armed by 31% and 
the lightly armed by 25%, and the disarmed by 0%. That all tanks, 
planes, gas and heavy artillery be completely prohibited was also 
rejected without discussion and Litvinoff was beseeched to show a more 
"constructive spirit." 
Page 305
     Once it was recognized that security was in acute danger, 
financial considerations were ruthlessly subordinated to rearmament 
giving rise to an economic boom which showed clearly what might have 
been achieved earlier if financial consideration had been subordinated 
to the world's economic and social needs earlier; such action would 
have provided prosperity and rising standards of living which might 
have made rearming unnecessary.  
     JCT: How true. 
Page 305
     The preliminary payments were supposed to amount to a total of 20 
billion marks by May 1921. Although the Entente Powers contended 
that only 8 billion had been paid,the whole matter was dropped when 
the Germans were presented with a total reparations bill of 132 
billion marks. Under pressure, Germany accepted this bill and gave the 
victors bonds of indebtedness. Of these, 82 billion were set aside and 
forgotten. Germany was to pay the other 50 billion at 2.5 billion a 
year in interest and .5 billion a year to reduce the total debt. 
     JCT: It would only take 200 years to pay off a total of 500 
billion in interest and 50 billion in principal. 
Page 306
     Germany could only pay if two conditions prevailed:
a) if it had a budgetary surplus and
b) if it sold abroad more than it bought abroad. 
     Since neither of these conditions generally existed in the period 
1921-1931, Germany could not, in fact, pay reparations.
     The failure to obtain a budgetary surplus was solely the  
responsibility of the government which refused to reduce its own 
expenditures or the standards of living off its own people or to  tax 
them sufficiently heavily. The failure to obtain a favorable balance 
of trade because foreign creditors refused to allow a free flow of 
German goods into their own countries. Thus creditors were unwilling 
to accept payment in the only way in which payments could honestly be 
made, that is, by accepting German goods and services.  
     JCT: Notice they wanted money and not the goods they could buy 
with it. 
     Germany could have paid in real goods and services if the 
creditors had been willing to accept such goods and services. The 
government made up the deficits by borrowing from the Reichsbank. The 
result was an acute inflation which was not injurious to the 
influential groups though it was generally ruinous to the middle 
classes and thus encouraged extremist elements. 
Page 307
     On Jan 9,1923, the Reparations Committee voted 3 to 1 (Britain 
opposing France, Belgium and  Italy) that Germany was in default. 
Armed forces of the three nations began to occupy the Ruhr two 
days later. Germany declared a general strike in the area, ceased all 
reparation payments, and adopted a program of passive resistance, the 
government supporting the strikers by printing more paper money.
     The area occupied was no more than 60 miles long by 30 miles wide 
but contained 10% of Germany's population and produced 80% of 
Germany's coal, iron and steel and 70% of her freight traffic. Almost 
150,000 Germans were deported. 
Page 308
     A compromise was reached by which Germany accepted the Dawes Plan 
for reparations and the Ruhr was evacuated. The Dawes Plan was largely 
a J.P. Morgan production drawn up by an international committee of 
financial experts presided over by American banker Charles Dawes. 
Germany paid reparations for five years (1924-1929) and owed more at 
the end than it had owed at the beginning. It is worthy of note that 
this system was set up by the international bankers and that the 
subsequent lending of other people's money to Germany was very 
profitable to these bankers. 
     Using these American loans, Germany's industry was largely 
rebuilt to make it the second best in the world and to pay 
Page 309
     By these loans Germany's creditors were able to pay their war 
debts to England without sending goods or services. Foreign exchange 
went to Germany as loans, back to Italy, Belgium, France and Britain 
as reparations and finally back to the US as payments on war debts. In 
that period, Germany paid 10.5 billion marks in reparations but 
borrowed 18.6 billion abroad. Nothing was settled by all this but the 
international bankers sat in heaven under a rain of fees and 
Page 310
     The Dawes Plan was replaced by the Young Plan, named after the 
American Owen Young (a Morgan agent). A new private bank called the 
Bank for International Settlements was established in Switzerland. 
Owned by the chief central banks of the world and holding accounts for 
each of them, "a Central Bankers' Bank," it allowed payments to be 
made by merely shifting credits from one country's account to another 
on the books of the bank. 
     The Young Plan lasted for less than 18 months. The crash of the 
New York stock market in 1929 marked the end of the decade of 
reconstruction and ended the American loans to Germany. 
     Germans and others had begun a "flight from the mark" which 
created a great drain on the German gold reserve. As it dwindled, the 
volume of money and credit erected on that reserve had to be reduced 
by raising the interest rate. Prices fell because of the reduced money 
supply so that it became almost impossible for the banks to sell 
collateral to obtain funds to meet the growing demand for money.
     JCT: Here he thinks loans are savings and has forgotten that he 
had earlier told us it was new credit. 
Page 311
     On May 8, 1931, the largest Austrian bank, the Credit-Anstalt (a 
Rothschild institution) which controlled 70% of Austria's industry, 
announced a $140 million schillings loss. The true loss was over a 
billion and the bank had been insolvent for years. The Rothschilds and 
the Austrian government gave the Credit-Anstalt 160 million to cover 
the loss but public confidence had been destroyed. A run began on the 
bank. To meet this run,the Austrian banks called in all the funds they 
had in German banks. The German banks began to collapse. These latter 
began to call in all their funds in London. The London banks began to 
fall and gold flowed outward. On Sept.21, England was forced off the 
gold standard. The Reichsbank lost 200 million marks of its gold 
reserve in the first week of June and a billion in the second. The 
discount rate was raised step by step to 15% without stopping the loss 
of reserves but destroying the activities of the German industrial 
system almost completely.
     Germany begged for relief on her reparations payments but her 
creditors were reluctant unless they obtained similar relief on the 
war-debt payments to the US. The President suggested a moratorium for  
one year if its debtors would extend the same privilege to their 
Page 312
     At the June 1932 Lausanne Conference, German reparations were cut 
to a total of only 3 billion marks but the agreement was never 
ratified because of the refusal of the US Congress to cut war debts 
equally drastically. In 1933, Hitler repudiated all reparations. 
page 315
A real understanding of the economic history of twentieth century 
Europe is imperative to any understanding of the events of the period. 
Such an understanding will require a study of the history of finance. 
Page 316
     The outbreak of war in 1914 showed these financial capitalists in 
their worst, narrow in outlook, ignorant and selfish, while 
proclaiming, as usual, their total devotion to the social good. They 
generally agreed that war could not go on for more than six to ten 
months because of the "limited financial resources" of the 
belligerents (by which they meant gold reserves).This idea reveals the 
fundamental misunderstanding of the nature and of money on the part of 
the very persons who were reputed to be experts on the subject. Wars 
are not fought with gold or even with money but by proper organization 
of real resources.  
     The attitudes of bakers were revealed most clearly in England, 
where every move was dictated by efforts to protect their own position 
and to profit from it rather than by considerations of 
economic mobilization for war or the welfare of the British people. 
War found the British banking system insolvent in the sense that its 
funds, created by the banking system for profit and rented out to the 
economic system to permit it to operate, could not be covered by the 
existing volume of gold reserves or collateral which could be 
liquidated rapidly. Accordingly,the bankers secretly devised a scheme 
by  which their  obligations could be met by fiat money (so-called 
Treasury Notes), but as soon as the crisis was over, they ten insisted 
that the government must pay for the war without recourse to fiat 
money (which was always damned by the bankers as immoral) but by 
taxation and by borrowing at high interest rates from the bankers. The 
decision to use Treasury Notes to fulfill the bankers' liabilities was 
made on July 25, 1915 by Sir John Bradbury. the first Treasury Notes 
were run off the presses at Waterloo and Sons on July 28th. It was 
announced that the Treasury Notes, instead of gold, would be used for 
bank payments. The discount rate was raised at the Bank of England 
from 3% to 10% to prevent inflation, a figure taken merely because the 
traditional rule of the bank stated that a 10% bank rate would draw 
gold out of the ground itself. 
Page 317 
     At the outbreak of war, most of the belligerent countries 
suspended gold payments and accepted their bankers' advice that the 
proper way to pay for the war was by a combination of bank loans and 
taxation of consumption. The governments paid for the war by taxation, 
by fiat money, by borrowing from banks (which created credit for the 
purpose) and by borrowing from the people by selling them war bonds.
     Each of these methods had a different effect upon the two 
consequences of the war: inflation and public debt. 
a) Taxation gives no inflation and no debt.
b) Fiat money gives inflation and no debt.
c) Bank credit gives inflation and debt.
d) Sales of bonds give no inflation but give debt.
     It would appear from this table that the best way to pay for the 
war would be by taxation and the worst way would be by bank credit. 
Probably the best way to finance war is a combination of the four 
Page 318
     In the period 1914-1918, the various belligerents used a mixture 
of  these four methods but it was a mixture dictated by expediency and 
false theories so that at the end of the war all countries found 
themselves with both public debts and inflation.
     While the prices in most countries rose 200 to 300 percent and 
public debts rose 1000%, the financial leaders tried to keep up the 
pretense that the money was as valuable as it had ever been. For this 
reason, they did not openly abandon the gold standard. Instead, they 
suspended certain attributes of the gold standard. In most countries, 
payments in gold and export of gold were suspended but every effort 
was made to keep gold reserves up to a respectable percentage of 
notes. These attributes were achieved in some cases by deceptive 
methods. In Britain, the gold reserves against notes fell from 52% to 
18% in the month of July 1914; then the situation was concealed, 
partly by moving assets of local banks into the Bank of England and 
using them as reserves for both, partly by issuing a new kind of notes 
(Currency Notes) which had no real reserve and little gold backing. 
Page 320
     As soon as the war was over, governments began to turn their 
attention to restoring the prewar financial system. Since the 
essential element was believed to be the gold standard, this movement 
was called "stabilization." 
     Productive capacity in both agriculture and industry had been 
increased by the artificial demand of the war period to a degree far 
beyond the ability of normal domestic demand to buy the products.
     JCT: But not to eat them.  
     The backwards areas had increased their outputs of raw materials 
and food so greatly that the total could hardly have been sold.
     JCT: But no eaten.
     The result was as situation where all countries were eager to 
sell and reluctant to buy. The only sensible solution to this problem 
of excessive productive capacity would have been a substantial rise in 
domestic standards of living but this would have required a 
fundamental reapportionment of the national income so that claims to 
this product of the excess capacity would go to those masses eager to 
consume, rather than continue to go  to the minority desiring to save. 
Such reform was rejected by the ruling groups in both "advanced" and 
"backwards" countries so that this solution was reached only to a 
small degree in a relatively few countries (chiefly US and Germany in 
Page 324
     The powers of financial capitalism had another far-reaching 
aim, nothing less than to create a world system of financial control 
in private hands able to dominate the political system of each country 
and the economy of the world as a whole. This system was to be 
controlled in a feudalist fashion by the central banks of the world 
acting in concert, by secret agreements arrived at in frequent private 
meetings and conferences. The apex of the system was to be the Bank 
for International Settlements in Basle, Switzerland, a private bank 
owned and controlled by the world's central banks which were 
themselves private corporations. Each central bank sought to dominate 
its government by its ability to control Treasury loans, to manipulate 
foreign exchanges, to influence the level of economic activity in the 
country, and to influence cooperative politicians by subsequent 
economic rewards in the business world. 
     In each country, the power of the central bank rested largely on 
its control of credit and money supply. In the world as a whole the 
power of the central bankers rested very largely on their control 
of loans and the gold flows. They made agreements on all the major 
financial problems of the world, as well as on many of  the 
economic and political problems, especially in reference to loans, 
payments, and the economic future of the chief areas of the globe. 
     The Bank of International Settlements, B.I.S. is generally 
regarded as the apex of the structure of financial capitalism whose 
remote origins go back to the creation of the Bank of England in 1694.
Page 325
     It was set up to be the world cartel of every-growing national 
financial powers by assembling the nominal heads of these national 
financial centers. 
     The commander in Chief of the world system of banking control was 
Montagu Norman, Governor of the Bank of England, who was built up by 
the private bankers to a position where he was regarded as an oracle 
in all matters of government and business. In government, the power of 
the Bank of England was a considerable restriction on political action 
as early as 1819 but an effort  to break this power by a modification 
of the bank's charter in1844 failed. In 1852, Gladstone, then 
chancellor of the Exchequer and later Prime Minister, declared, 
"The hinge of the whole situation was this: the government itself was 
not to be a substantive power in matters of Finance, but was to leave 
the Money Power supreme and unquestioned." 
     This power of the Bank of England was admitted in 1924 by 
Reginald McKenna, who had been Chancellor of the Exchequer, when he, 
as Chairman, told the stockholders of the Midland bank, "I am afraid 
the ordinary citizen will not like to be told that the banks can, and 
do, create money. And they who control the credit of a nation direct 
the policy if Governments and hold in the hollow of their hands the 
destiny of the people." In that same year, Sir Drummond Fraser, vice-
president of the Institute of Bankers stated, "The Governor must be 
the autocrat who dictates the terms upon which alone the Government 
can obtain borrowed money." On Sep. 26, 1921,
Vincent Vickers, director of the bank, the Financial Times wrote, 
"Half a dozen meant the top of the Big Five Banks could upset the 
whole fabric of government by refraining from renewing Treasury 
Page 326
     Norman had no use for governments and feared democracy. Both 
of these seemed to him to be threats to private banking and thus to 
all that was proper and precious to human life. He viewed his life as 
a kind of cloak-and-dagger struggle with the forces of unsound money 
which were in league with anarchy and Communism. When he rebuilt the 
Bank of England,he constructed it as a fortress prepared to defend 
itself against any popular revolt. For much of his life, he 
rushed about the world under the assumed name of "Professor Skinner."
     Norman had a devoted colleague in Benjamin Strong, the first 
governor of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Strong owed his 
career to the favor of the Morgan bank. 
     In the 1920s, they were determined to use the financial power of 
Britain and the US to force all the major countries of the world to go 
on the gold standard and to operate it through central banks free from 
all political control, with all questions of international finance to 
be settled by agreements by such central banks without interference 
from governments. 
Page 327
          It must not be felt that these heads of the world's chief 
central banks were themselves substantive powers in world finance. 
They were not. Rather, they were the technicians and agents of the 
dominant investment bankers of their own countries, who had raised 
them up and were perfectly capable of throwing them down. The 
substantive financial powers of the world were in the hands of 
investment bankers (also called "international" or "merchant" bankers) 
who remained largely behind the scenes in their own unincorporated 
private banks. 
     These formed system of international cooperation and national 
dominance which was more private,more powerful, and more secret tan 
that of their agents in the central banks. This dominance of 
investment bankers was based on their control over the flows of credit 
and investment funds in their own countries and throughout the world. 
They could dominate the financial and industrial systems of their own 
countries by their influence over the flow of current funds through 
bank loans,the discount rate,the rediscounting of commercial debts; 
they could dominate governments by their control over current 
government loans and the play of the international exchanges. 
     Almost all of this power was exercised by  the personal influence 
and prestige men who had demonstrated their ability in the past to 
bring off successful financial coups, to keep their word, to remain 
cool in a crisis, and to share their winning opportunities with their 
     In this system, the Rothschilds had been preeminent during much 
of the nineteenth century, but, at the end of that century, they were 
being replaced by J.P. Morgan in New York. 
     At the present stage, we must follow the efforts of the central 
bankers to compel the world to return to the gold standard of 1914. 
Page 328
     The problem of public debts arose from the fact that as money 
(credit) was created, it was usually made in such a way that it was 
not in the control of the state but was in the control of private 
financial institutions which demanded real wealth at some future date 
for the creation of claims on wealth in the present. The problem of 
public debt could have been met in one or more of several fashions:
a) by increasing the amount of real wealth...
b) by devaluation...
c) by repudiation...
d) by taxation...
e) by the issuance of fiat money and the payment of the debt by such 
Page 329
     Efforts to pay the public debt by fiat money would have made the 
inflation problem worse. 
     Orthodox theory rejected fiat money as solutions to the problem. 
Page 332
     In Britain, the currency notes which had been used to supplement 
bank notes were retired and credit was curtailed by raising the 
discount rate to panic level. The results were horrible. Business 
activity fell drastically and unemployment rose to well over a million 
and a half. The outcome was a great wave of strikes and industrial 
Page 333
     To maintain the gold reserve at all, it was necessary to keep 
the discount rate at a level so high (4.5% or more) that business 
activity was discouraged. As a result of this financial policy, 
Britain found herself faced with deflation and depression for the 
whole period of 1920-1923. The number of unemployed averaged about 
1.75 millions for each of the thirteen years of 1921-1932 and reached 
3 million in 1931.
     Belgium, France and Italy, accepted orthodox financial ideas and 
tried to deflate in 1920-1921 but after the depression which resulted, 
they gave up the task. 
Page 334
     The Dawes Plan provided the gold reserves which served to protect 
Germany from the accepted principles of orthodox finance. 
Page 336
     Financial capitalism had little interest in goods at all, but was 
concerned entirely with claims on wealth - stocks, bonds, mortgages, 
insurance, proxies, interest rates, and such. It built railroads in 
order to sell securities, not to transport goods. Corporations were 
built upon corporations in the form of holding companies so that 
securities were issued in huge quantities bringing profitable fees and 
commissions to financial capitalists without any increase in economic  
production whatever. Indeed, these financial capitalists discovered 
that they could not only make killings out of the issuing of such 
securities,they could also make killings out of the bankruptcy of such 
corporations through the fees and commissions of reorganization. A 
very pleasant cycle of flotation, bankruptcy, flotation, bankruptcy 
began to be practiced by these financial capitalists. The more 
excessive the flotation, the greater the profits and the more imminent 
the bankruptcy. The more frequent the bankruptcy, the greater the  
profits of reorganization and the sooner the opportunity of another 
excessive flotation. 
Page 337
     The growth of financial capitalism made possible a centralization 
of world economic control and a use of this power for the direct 
benefit of financiers and the indirect injury of all other economic 
groups. Financial control could be exercised only imperfectly through 
credit control and interlocking directorates. 
Page 338
     The real key rested on the control of money flows which were held 
by investment bankers in 1900.  
Page 339
     After 1929, deflation reached a degree which could be called 
acute. In the first part of this period (1921-1925), the dangerous 
economic implications of deflation were concealed by a structure of 
self-deception which pretended that a great period of economic 
progress would be inaugurated as soon as the task of stabilization had 
been accomplished. This psychological optimism was completely 
unwarranted by the economic facts. After 1925, when deflation became 
more deep-rooted and economic conditions worsened, the danger from 
these conditions was concealed by a continuation of unwarranted 
Page 342
     When France stabilized the franc at a level at which it was 
devalued, the Bank of France sold francs in return for foreign 
exchange. The francs were created as credit in France thus giving an 
inflationary effect. 
Page 343
     The financial results of the stock market book in the U
S was credit diverted from production to speculation and increasing 
amounts of funds being drained from the economic system into the stock 
market where they circulated around and around, building up prices 
of securities. 
Page 344
     Early in 1929, the board of governors of the Federal Reserve 
System became alarmed at the stock market speculations draining credit 
from industrial production. To curtail this, they called upon member 
banks to reduce their loans on stock collateral to reduce the amount 
of credit available for speculation. Instead, the available credit 
went more and more to speculation and decreasingly to productive 
business. Call money rates in New York which had reached 7% at the end 
of 1928 were at 13% by June 1929. 
Page 346
     To restore confidence among the wealthy (who were causing the 
panic) an effort was made to balance the budget by cutting public 
expenditures drastically. This, by reducing purchasing power, had 
injurious effects on business activity and increased unrest among the 
masses of the people. 
Page 350
     Washington left gold in 1933 voluntarily in order to follow an 
unorthodox financial program of inflation. 
Page 351
     The Thomas Amendment to the Agricultural Adjustment Act (1933) 
gave the president the power to devaluate the dollar up to 50%, to 
issue up to $3 billion fiat money,and to engage on an extensive 
program of public spending. 
Page 352
     The economies of the different countries were so intertwined with 
one another that any policy of self-interest on the part of one would 
be sure to injure others in the short run and the country in the 
long run. The international and domestic economic systems had 
developed to the point where the customary methods of thought and 
procedure in regard to them were obsolete. 
page 353
     As a result of the crisis, regardless of the nature of its 
primary impact, all countries began to pursue policies of economic 
nationalism. This spread rapidly as a result of imitation and 
Page 355
     The Bank of France raised its discount rate from 2.5% to 6% in 
1935 with depressing economic results. In this way, the strain on gold 
was relieved at the cost of increased depression. The Right discovered 
that it could veto any actions of the Left government merely by 
exporting capital from France. 
Page 356
     The franc passed through a series of depreciations and partial 
devaluations which benefited no one except the speculators and left 
France torn for years by industrial unrest and class struggles. The 
government was subjected to systematic blackmail by the well-to-do 
of the country because of the ability of these persons to prevent 
social reform, public spending, arming, or any policy of decision by 
selling francs.  
Page 357
     The historical importance of the banker-engendered deflationary 
crisis of 1927-1940 can hardly be overestimated. It gave a blow to 
democracy and to the parliamentary system and thus became a chief 
cause of World War II. It so hampered the Powers which remained 
democratic by its orthodox economic theories that these were unable to 
rearm for defence. It gave rise to a conflict between the theorists of 
orthodox and unorthodox financial methods. 
     The bankers' formula for treating a depression was by clinging to 
the gold standard, by raising interest rates and seeking deflation, 
and by insisting on a reduction in public spending, a fiscal surplus 
or at least a balanced budget.
     These ideas were rejected totally, on a point by point basis, by 
the unorthodox economists, (somewhat mistakenly called Keynesian). The 
bankers' formula sought to encourage economic recovery by "restoring 
confidence in the value of money," that is, their own confidence in 
what was the primary concern of bankers. 
     The unorthodox theorists sought to restore purchasing power by 
increasing, instead of reducing, the money supply and by placing it in 
the hands of potential consumers rather than in the banks or in the 
hands of investors. 
page 358
     The whole relationship of money and resources remained a puzzle 
to many and was still a subject of debate in the 1950s but at least a 
great victory had been won by man in his control of his own destiny 
when the myths of orthodox financial theory were finally challenged in 
the 1930s. 
Page 360
     Except for Germany and Russia, most countries in the latter half 
of 1937 experienced sharp recession. 
Page 361
     As a result of the failure of most countries (excepting Germany 
and Russia) to achieve full utilization of resources, it was possible 
to devote increasing percentages of resources to armaments without 
suffering any decline in the standards of living. 
Page 366
     It was discovered by Germany in 1932, by Italy in 1934, by Japan 
in 1936 and by the United States in 1938 that deflation could be 
prevented by rearming. 
Page 368
     Britain made barter agreements with various countries, including 
one direct swap of rubber for wheat with the US. 
Page 369
     The period of reflation after 1933 was caused by increases in 
public spending on armaments. In most countries,the transition from 
reflation to inflation did not occur until after they had entered the 
war. Germany was the chief exception and possibly also Italy and 
Russia, since all of these were making fairly full utilization of 
their  resources. In France and the other countries overrun by 
Germany, such full mobilization of resources was not achieved before 
they were defeated. 
Page 370
     The use of orthodox financing in the First World War had left a 
terrible burden of intergovernmental debts and ill-feeling...
Page 371
     The Post Second World War economy was entirely different in 
character from that of  the 1920s following the First World War. This 
was most notable in the absence of a post-war depression which was 
widely expected but which did not arrive because there was no effort 
to stabilize on a gold standard. The major difference was the eclipse 
of the bankers who have been largely reduced in status from the 
masters to the servants of the economic system. This has been brought 
about by the new concern with real economic factors instead of with 
financial counters, as previously. As part of this program, there has 
been a great reduction in the economic role of gold. 
Page 375
     Industrialism, especially in its early years, brought with it 
social and economic conditions which were admittedly horrible. Human 
beings were brought together around factories to form great new cities 
which were sordid and unsanitary. In many cases, these persons were 
reduced to conditions of animality, which shock the imagination. 
Crowded together in want and disease, with no leisure and no security, 
completely dependent on weekly wage which was less than a pittance, 
they worked twelve to fifteen hours a day for six days in the week 
among dusty and dangerous machines with no protection against 
inevitable accidents, disease, or old age, and returned at night to 
crowded rooms without adequate food and lacking light, fresh air, 
heat, pure water, or sanitation. These conditions have been described 
for us in the writings of novelists such as Dickens in England, Hugo 
or Zola in France. 
Page 376
     The Socialist movement was a reaction against these deplorable 
conditions to the working masses. It has been customary to divide this 
movement into two parts at the year 1848, the publication of the 
Communist Manifesto of Karl Marx. This work began with the ominous 
sentence, "A specter is haunting Europe - the specter of Communism," 
and ended with the trumpet blast "Workers of the world, unite." 
     In general, the former division believed that man was innately 
good and that all coercive power was bad, with public authority the 
worst form of such coercive power. All the world's evils, according to 
the anarchists, arose because man's innate goodness was corrupted and 
distorted by coercive power. The remedy, they felt, was to destroy the 
state. The simplest way to destroy the state would be to assassinate 
the chief of the state to ignite a wholesale uprising of oppressed 
Page 377
     Syndicalism was a somewhat more realistic and later version of 
anarchism. It was equally determined to abolish all public authority. 
The state would be destroyed by a general strike and replaced by a 
flexible federation of free associations of workers. 
     The second group of radical social theorists wished to widen the 
power and scope of governments by giving them a dominant role in 
economic life. The group divided into0 two chief schools: The 
Socialists and the Communists. 
Page 378
     From Ricardo, Marx derived the theory that the value of economic 
goods was based on the amount of labor put into them. 
Page 379
     Marx built up a complicated theory which believed that all 
history is the history of class struggles.
     The money which the bourgeoisie took from the proletariat in the 
economic system made it possible for them to dominate the political 
system, including the police and the army. From such exploitation, the 
bourgeoisie would become richer and richer and fewer and fewer in 
numbers and acquire ownership of all property in the society while the 
proletariat would become poorer and poorer and more and more numerous 
and be driven closer and closer to desperation. Eventually, the latter 
would rise up and take over. 
Page 381
     In fact, what occurred was could be pictured as cooperative 
effort by unionized workers and monopolized industry to exploit 
unorganized consumers by raising prices higher and higher, quite 
contrary to the expectations of Marx. Where he had expected 
impoverishment of the masses and concentration of ownership with 
gradual elimination of the middle classes, there occurred instead 
rising standards of living, dispersal of ownership , a relative 
decrease in the numbers of laborers, and a great increase in the 
middle classes. Due to income and inheritance taxes, the rich became 
poorer and poorer, relatively speaking. 
Page 385
     The new government forced the abdication of the czar. The more 
radical Socialists had been released from prison or had been returned 
from exile (in some cases, such as Lenin, by German assistance)
     JCT: And Rockefeller and Mackenzie King. 
Page 386
     Lenin campaigned to replace the Provisional Government with a 
system of Soviets and to adopt an immediate program of peace and land 
distribution. The Bolshevik group seized the centers of government in 
St. Petersburg and within 24 hours, issued a series of decrees which 
abolished the Provisional government, ordered the end of the war with 
Germany and the distribution of large land holdings to the peasants. 
Page 387
     By 1920 industrial production in general was about 13% of the 
1913 figure. At the same time, paper money was printed so freely to 
pay for the costs of war, civil war, and the operation of the 
government that prices rose rapidly and the ruble became almost 
     The secret police (Cheka) systematically murdered all real or 
potential opponents. 
Page 388
     Various outsider Powers also intervened in the Russian chaos. 
An allied expeditionary force invaded northern Russia from Murmansk 
and Archangel, while a force of Japanese and another of Americans 
landed at Vladivostok and pushed westward for hundreds of miles. The 
British seized the oil fields of the Caspian region (late 1918) while 
the French occupied parts of the Ukraine about Odessa (March 1919).
     By 1920, Russia was in complete confusion. Poland invaded Russia 
occupying much of the Ukraine. 
Page 389
     As part of this system, not only were all agricultural crops 
considered to be government property but all private trade and 
commerce were also forbidden; the banks were nationalized while all 
industrial plants of over five workers and all craft enterprises of 
over ten workers were nationalized. This culminated in peasant 
uprisings and urban riots. Within a week, peasant requisitioning was 
abandoned in favor of a "New Economic Policy" of free commercial 
activity in agriculture and other commodities, with the 
re-establishment of the profit motive and of private ownership in 
small industries and in small landholding. 
Page 395
     The Bolsheviks insisted that the distribution of income in a 
capitalistic society would become so inequitable that the masses of 
the people would not obtain sufficient income to buy the goods being 
produced by the industrial plants. As such unsold goods accumulated 
with decreasing profits and deepening depression, there would be a 
shift toward the production of armaments to provide profits and 
produce goods which could be sold and there would be an increasingly 
aggressive foreign policy in order to obtain markets for unsold goods 
in backward and undeveloped countries. Such aggressive imperialism 
would inevitably make Russia a target of aggression in order to 
prevent a successful Communist system there from becoming an 
attractive model for the discontented proletariat in capitalistic 
Page 396
     Communism in Russia alone required that the country must be 
industrialized with breakneck speed and must emphasize heavy industry 
and armaments rather than rising standards of living. This meant that 
goods produced by the peasants must be taken from them by political 
duress, without any economic return, and that the ultimate in 
authoritarian terror must be used to prevent the peasants from reducing 
their level of production. It was necessary to crush all kinds of 
foreign espionage, resistance to the Bolshevik state, independent 
thought, or public discontent. 
Page 397
     Stalin forced the peasants off their land. In the space of six 
weeks, (Feb-Mar 1930) collective farms increased from 59,400 with 4.4 
million families to 110,200 farms with 14.3 million families. All 
peasants who resisted were treated with violence; their property was 
confiscated, they were beaten or sent into exile in remote areas; many 
were killed. This process, known as "the liquidation of the kulaks" 
affected five million kulak families. Rather than give up their 
animals, many peasants killed them. The number of cattle was reduced 
from 30.7 million in 1928 to 19.6 million in 1933. The planting 
season of 1930 was entirely disrupted. Three million peasants 
starved in 1931-1933. Stalin told Churchill that 12 million died in 
this reorganization of agriculture. 
Page 401
     The privileged rulers and their favorites had the best of 
everything obtained, however at a terrible price, at the cost of 
complete insecurity for even the highest party officials were under 
constant surveillance and would be inevitably purged to exile or 
     The growth of inequality was embodied in law. All restrictions on 
maximum salaries were removed. Special stores were established where 
the privileged could obtain scarce goods at low prices; restaurants 
with different menus were set up in industrial plants for different 
levels of employees; housing discrimination became steadily wider. 
Page 402
     As public discontent and social tensions grew, the use of spying, 
purges, torture and murder increased out of all proportion. Every wave 
of discontent resulted in new waves of police activity. Hundreds of 
thousands were killed while millions were arrested and exiled to 
Siberia or put into huge slave-labor camps. Estimates vary from two 
million as high as twenty million. 
Page 403
     For every leader who was publicly eliminated, thousands were 
eliminated in secret. By 1939, all the leaders of Bolshivism had been 
driven from public life and most had died violent deaths. 
     There were two networks of secret-police spies, unknown to each 
other, one serving the special department of the factory while the 
other reported to a high level of the secret police outside. 
Page 404
     Whenever the secret police needed more money it could sweep large 
numbers of persons, without trial or notice, into its wage deduction 
system or into its labor camps to be hired out. It would seem that the 
secret police were the real rulers of Russia. This was true except at 
the very top where Stalin could always liquidate the head by having 
him arrested by his second in command in return for Stalin's promise 
to promote the arrester to the top position. In this way, the chiefs 
of the secret police were successively eliminated. 

Send a comment to John Turmel