THE BABYLONIAN WOE Chapters XII-XIV by David Astle
CHAPTER XII. Sparta, the Pelanors, Wealth and Women XIII. Money Creators and the Political Control XIV. Man Proposes but God Disposes
CHAPTERS XII: SPARTA, THE PELANORS, WEALTH AND WOMEN
Page 175 Sparta, of all Greek states, is one that resisted most of all the encroachments of international money power and the circulation of precious metals. However, from those laws promulgated by Lycurgus of Sparta, reputedly during the ninth century B.C. but it would seem that all those evils deriving from giving such international money power free rein had already been experienced and had brought about that reaction amongst the people generally that enabled Lycurgus to take those measures by which he expunged forever the main causes of the sickness of greed and self-interest which gnawed at the heart of the Doric overlord class of the Peloponnese. To him are ascribed the laws directed towards this purpose such as are described by Plutarch:
Page 176 "Not contented with this redistribution of land, he commanded that all gold and silver should be called in and that only a sort of money of iron should be current, a great weight and quantity of which was very little worth. So that to lay up twenty or thirty pounds, there was required a pretty large closet, and to remove it, nothing less than a yoke of oxen. With the diffusion of this money, at once a number of vices were banished for who would rob another of such coin? Who would unjustly detain or take by force or accept as a bribe a thing which was not easy to hide or a credit to have, or indeed of any use to cut in pieces? For when it was red-hot, they quenched it in vinegar and by that means spoilt it and made it almost incapable of being worked. So now there was no means of purchasing foreign goods. No itinerant fortune teller nor harlot monger, or gold or silver smith, engraver or jeweler set foot in a country which had no money. For the rich had no advantage here over the poor as their wealth and abundance had no road to come abroad by, but were shut up at home doing nothing." Plutarch, of course, lived in a city in an age when all wealth was assessed in terms of precious metals by weight. Needless to say, in order to have the cooperation of the real ruler, local money creative power, towards the publication of his works, he wisely followed that trend of making a mockery of Spartan customs, a trend which is still followed to this day by many so-called scholars.
Page 177 Sparta, early in the Millennium had come to understand the real significance of precious metals money as being part of an international confidence game. Sparta also realized the destructive forces inherent in the activities of its controllers. The so-called Spartan way of life derived from the necessity of the Spartans to always be prepared for total war from abroad, as their final rejection of international money power made certain would come, and to be always prepared for war from within, i.e. insurrection; and equal certainty deriving from the same causes. The first Messenian War (736-716 B.C.) was entered into by King Theopompus of Sparta for the usual reasons for any war in a state indicated by archaeological findings as being under the thumb of international money power; instigation of that money power in favor of its arms industry and its other long range purposes. The long drawn out character of the war indicated that the Messenians had equal access to international arms industry with Sparta. Armies are not raised and maintained in long drawn out wars without finances acceptable in international trade and ready access to the best of weapons and equipment; and it is clear the Messenians were not short of such. This war served that purpose most desirable to money power of reducing the power of kings followed by constitutional crises. The first settlement was a victory of the Spartan peers over the kings and curbing of royal prerogatives and powers. Such would have been typical of the progress of international money power in its usual insidious takeover of any state or civilization.
Page 178 The final edicts of Lycurgus as a result of the constitutional crisis that followed the second Messenian war certainly indicate he was aware of the loss of sovereignty that came to any state that based its money system on the product of the international bullion brokers, and which meant dependence on their good graces, the more especially if such state had no mines of its own. Of the reforms of Lycurgus, their cause, and those forces they were directed against, there is no doubt whatsoever.
Page 179 There is no doubt that early in the sixth century B.C., the Spartans totally excluded the international money market such as controlled the rest of Greece through silver and gold money and the bankers' practices relating to. The notion created by Plutarch of that national currency of iron as being something ridiculous and requiring also an ox-cart may be dismissed as part of the steady stream of propaganda no doubt being created in Athens against the customs of Sparta. If it is true that the "pelanors" were of such weight as ruled out their being readily passed from hand to hand, then it may reasonably be assumed that they denoted wealth in much the same manner as the stone rings of Uap and the ancient Indus Valley civilization; more in the nature of a reserve, the circulating money being the leather notes referred to by Suidas, just as the circulating money of Uap was shell strings, similar to Tekaroro of the Gilbert Islands. Sparta was indeed fortunate to possess considerably reserves of iron ore. Thus both for her money and for her arms, she was therefore independent and needed no assistance from abroad.
Page 180 The very fact that the power of the kings had been undermined became a blessing in disguise. History has shown that the point to which international money power immediately gravitates when penetrating any people is the top, the king himself, either directly or through the priesthood. Given his sanction and connivance with respect to their schemes, then peoples are easily subdued and their minds filled with arithmetical calculations and obsession with their animal needs. One of the first steps of such money power towards total assumption of rule has been the eradication of kings for even though a king might be lead into connivance with their schemes through lack of understanding, he always could still awaken and discover his mistake and realizing the sword was still in his hand, take measures to regain his prerogative. Therefore he had to be disposed of or reduced to paid and willing servant. In Sparta there seems to have been another obstacle to international money power, namely, the Ephorate, whose existence was linked to that national money power of Sparta as instituted under the protection of Lycurgus. Of the Ephors, it may be said their main objectives were: "first the maintenance of home defence and limiting of Spartan dominion to Messenia and Laconia (i.e. no imperial entanglements) and an unrelenting hostility to the pretensions of royal power in the state. The Ephorate was a profoundly democratic institution that feared and fought against tyranny both within and without the borders of Lacedaemon." Accepting the tyrant as the front man of those alien agents of international money power, the trapezitae, then the meaning of their policies becomes clear: establishment of an area from which Spartans could derive total economic freedom, sufficient to maintain themselves and that which above all maintained their way of life and its source, their national monetary system.
Page 181 The intervention at Athens was obvious policy in view of of the unrelenting pressure of Athenian money power as a branch of International Money Power against Sparta, city that had made a mockery of the power of the counting houses of the world financial centers and had set up example in the world which would become inspiration to others. The Ephorate made sure that kings in no way had the power to surrender themselves and the people they represented to the blandishments of international money power whose opportunity alas, has always been a weak and ill-instructed king. However the remark of Archidamos, King of Sparta reveals even in 428 B.C. how the corruptive forces outpouring from Babylonia, with its immediate agents, had certainly re-entered Sparta to some degree: "And war is not so much a matter of armaments as of the money that makes armaments effective." In his speech to his own people, Archidamos also warns them of the 6000 talents war chest supposedly held by the Athenians in the Acropolis. Both of these statements show no understanding of that in which a king should above all be instructed, National Monetary Emission, and prove how right were the Ephors in the controls with which they surrounded his kingship. Archidamos privately was close friend of Pericles, scion of the Alkmeonidae, whose destiny Greek history shows to have always been closely linked to that international money power. During the period when the national currency of Sparta maintained its integrity, it might be safe to say that the Spartan, in so far as it is possible for true freedom to exist, was a free man. Indeed, the helots were more than likely more free by a long way than are the laboring classes of this day; and certainly more free than those classes of semi-mass production lines of the other Greek cities whose monetary systems were almost all at the mercy of the bankers, the manipulators of the value of bullion and slaves.
Page 182 A monetary system, simple, inviting neither peddlers or luxury, issued and regulated by a benevolent state and undoubtedly its units paid into circulation with care and attention to the result on the national well-being and strength, bred a sturdy independent people completely contemptuous of the gold madness raging elsewhere. They were an example by which other great peoples came to profit, outstandingly, the Romans. History gives much information about the means whereby money was collected and raised and spent but nothing as to those shadowy figures who institute its units in the first place and inject them into circulation. As to when international money power re-entered Sparta, there is little enough evidence. But the outlook of King Archidamos suggested it had made quite some progress by the date of the commencement of the Peloponnesian war, and it may be safely said that to win that war, out of which could come nothing but gain to international money power, Sparta had to make almost total concession. The final victory over Athens achieved the purposes of the international bullion and slave traders as surely as final defeat would so have done. As it will remembered, the relaxation and luxury that inundated Rome after the second Punic War as a result of concessions that had been made to international bullion and slave traders in order to be able to re-arm after Cannae, and ultimately drive Hannibal out of Italy and defeat him in his own territory, within 25 years dragged the Romans down to a debauched money mad mob.
Page 183 Similarly, after the Peloponnesian War, like causes had done the same for Sparta, and it was but 25 years later, in 371 B.C. the Spartan Phalanx crumbled into bloody ruin at Leuctra and never again recovered for the Spartans were now consumed by the corrupting diseases of money madness and its attendant liberalism. That by 360 B.C. the ancient money system was little more than a memory is revealed by the quotation from Alexander Del Mar: "The crime of Gylipus, B.C. 360, and the decree offered upon its exposure, viz. "That no coin of gold or silver be admitted into Sparta, but that they should use the money that had formerly obtained" shows that as this decay of the state and weakening of credit went on, gold and silver coins, at or near their bullion value, gradually crept into circulation as money. The failure of the decree to pass is conclusive that the iron numerical system was no longer practicable." In other words, the damage to that which had been Sparta done by the ruler who first of all turned a blind eye to dealings in precious metals, the regrowth of international trade, and no doubt the holding of deposits in Athenian banks, was irreparable. It seemed this time that the clock could not be turned back.
Page 184 Athens, as with Rome by the time of the Civil Wars, its original people had disappeared into that mass of freed slaves and immigrants from elsewhere. Of Spartan money as reinstituted under the patronage of Lycurgus, Ernest Babelon wrote: "A long time after the use of money had been spread throughout the Hellenic world, Sparta continued to make use of ingots of iron as a means of exchange. These bars were known as "pastry cakes" weighing an Aeginetic Mina, that is to say 756 Kg, required a wagon to carry. All kinds of stories circulated on the subject of the famous "Pelanors" of Sparta that seem to have remained in use until the Persian Wars... In the 7th century, King Pheidon of Argos, when he struck the first silver money of Aegina, withdrew the former iron spits from circulating that had served as money until then."
Page 186 Babelon, most learned scholar as he was, however reflects the complacent attitude of the bankers that money was precious metal and precious metal was money. Though over 2000 years have gone by, precious metal money and its promoters still ruled, despite a dozen great kingdoms and empires having risen at its behest and having fallen at its behest. Did Babelon see the shadow which lurked behind the throne, he closed his eyes and turned his head away. Lycurgus was without doubt inspired to re-establish this national monetary system by the clear understanding he must have come to have of the evil effects of this gold and silver madness and its disastrous effects as a result of the operations of the trapezitae or bankers relative to the destruction of national morale and being. Precious metal coinage was currency whose total circulation the state could in no way control because of the desirability of its material internationally. Its value was dictated by the arbitrary decision of that international fraternity who controlled its mining and the slaves that mined it, and out of manipulation of that pyramid of abstract money they created thereon, controlled the political affairs of states. The money that had been established at Sparta was of value to Spartans alone. Although no record exists of such matter, it may be safely assumed that the Pelanors, the leather multiples or divisible of Suidas, entered the circulation as against state indebtedness; thus reducing taxation, that vicious destroyer of peoples, to relatively negligible amounts. Their pitted and otherwise worthless appearance deriving from their being immersed in vinegar when red hot made them of no value for any other purpose than that for which they were intended. The use of this national money was the force that gave Sparta the leadership of Hellas until the end of the Peloponnesian War and was that which necessarily dictated the policy of extirpation of the tyrannies, the tyrant always being representative for the agent of international money creative power through precious metal control.
Page 187 There might be the temptation to assume the Pelanors were a system of "Iron Greenbacks" but while they resembled the Greenbacks in this that they were the total will to be of the Spartans, assuming the truth of their great weight, they may have been more in the character of that monetary system of very ancient days of which the stone rings of Uap are a last remaining evincement. (According to Del Mar, the iron currency of the Pelanors was strictly a numerical system confined to Sparta, it was a national system having no relationship to International Standards or ratios with other metals; thus being identical in character to the "Greenback" paper money issued by President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War and by which means the schemes of the international bullion broking fraternity were temporarily frustrated.) A healthy wholesome people who controlled totally their state and existence would have little reason to accumulate money fortunes, and wealth as distinct from the land which was their patrimony; and as such money fortunes begin and end as little more than figures in the banker's ledger, nor could they be guided into becoming mouthpieces for the policies of the bankers. A genuine contempt for luxury existed.
Page 188 Although it was said of the monetary reforms of Lycurgus that precious metals seized in war were deposited with the Arcadians, of later days, Augustus Boeckh wrote of gold and silver in Sparta: "Sparta swallowed up large quantities of precious metals. The principal cause of this stagnation was that the state kept the gold and silver in store and only re-issued them for war and foreign enterprise; although there were instances of individuals who amassed treasures according to the law. Xenophon stated that Lycurgus made the privilege of citizenship equally available to all who observed the laws which would mean that no Spartan suffered in respect to the mess to which he was entitled to belong on account of economic condition. Xenophon had lived in Sparta before the loss of Messenia. Aristotle after Messenia in 370 B.C. and the certain penetration and assumption of control of Spartan fiscal affairs by the bankers. The final military collapse at Leuctra rose from that weakened condition that followed the apparent victory of the Great Peloponnesian War and those concessions that would have already been made to the international bankers as a result of the desperate need of the Spartans for ships. The loan of 5000 talents towards the building of ships which was granted to Sparta by Persia in 412 B.C. would not have been granted without major concessions being exacted. It would not take long for them to undermine the morale of Sparta by the spreading of money madness. Of this situation, Polybius, as quoted by Humphrey Michell, wrote the following:
Page 189 "Once they began to undertake naval expeditions and to make military campaigns outside the Peloponnese, it was evident that neither their iron currency nor the exchange of their crops for commodities which they lacked, as permitted by the laws of Lycurgus, would suffice for their needs. These enterprises demanded a currency in universal circulation so they were compelled to beg from the Persians and exact taxes from all the Greeks. For they recognized that under the legislation of Lycurgus, it was impossible to aspire, I will not say to supremacy in Greece, but to any position of influence." " The fact is however Sparta, while following the laws of Lycurgus, had dominated in more or less degree. As soon as she lost sight of the meaning and purpose of such laws, she became just another petty state; an agency for the subterranean control by international banking through manipulation of the silver and gold bullion basis of her currency; each man, concerned with his own need and greed, aimlessly following the pretty bubble which was the illusion of banker's "wealth." The old order which had given them strength was soon destroyed. The later age of Aristotle was the age of the triumph of those international interests whose arming and instigation of the Messenian helots in an earlier age decided Spartans to accept the structure of law as advocated by Lycurgus which meant surrender of so much ease of living, rather than become the same as most Greek states, an alien money manipulators' paradise.
Page 190 As the earliest finds of the clay facsimiles of precious metals coinage at Athens seem to date around the middle of the fifth century B.C., it may be assumed that one way or another, the lust for having, one man more than his neighbor, slowly became injected into them. Perhaps Spartan mercenaries who always required to be paid in those international currencies of silver and gold had been inveigled into depositing their pay with the bankers of the Piraeus with whom it might "grow" with interest; taking home the baked clay coins as evidence of their account and thus evading contravention of the Spartan laws in respect of possession of gold and silver. With the resumption of the rule of international money power in later Spartan history, one of the most outstanding instances of that sickness rotting the fibers of their racial morale was the tale of those "Homoioi" who seemed to have fallen in the social scale and were no longer able to take their places in those great messes. Scholars gave various reasons for these "disenfranchised" Spartans apparently known as the "hypomeiones." The reason for their coming to be is more than clear. They are the direct result of the power to discriminate which is the natural outcome in favor of the banker of that actual god-power he exercises once installed as local money creator. More than likely, the re-established bankers would have taken care that certain families who might yet create opposition to them were dispossessed by one means or another. With that banker created money as being now necessary qualification for membership, it was a small matter to make sure that those they wished to dispossess never had enough.
Page 191 Clearly, the mess charges being assessed in silver money whose issue the bankers controlled, those to whom such alien bankers extended no favors and therefore ultimately dispossessed through mortgage and foreclosure, not having any longer the wherewithal to pay, no longer belonged. The Spartan, whether poor or rich, in the days of national currency had been the social equal of any other Spartan, however the slow decay of the Spartan principle derived from a most outstanding omission in the constitution which was total lack of provision for the redistribution of wealth at certain intervals, and the cancellation of debt as in the Hebrew custom of the 49th year.
Page 192 The control of wealth passed substantially into the hands of women. Concern for the growth of money, no doubt, just as in this day, replaced care for their men and the growth of their children.
CHAPTER XIII: MONEY CREATORS AND THE POLITICAL CONTROL
Page 193 In their inception, so-called political parties were other expression of the principle of rule of tyrant, or dictator. Though apparently instituted in opposition to each other, such societies were the very natural outcome of complete usurpation of the essence of sovereign power through conspiracy in respect to interference with the issue of the unit of exchange. Such front organizations are the natural result of semi-secret societies arrogating to themselves that privilege which formerly belonged to the god alone, of the creation of exchange units, abstract or otherwise. The only limit would be the limit dictated by caution against over-saturation of that money market being interfered with. Naturally it was usually borne in mind that the (silly) goose that laid the golden eggs must not be altogether destroyed and care was taken that the real meaning of these activities was deeply concealed for fear that ruler and people might come to realize the true nature of the forces at work in their midst. (In respect to money creation and issuance, Dr. Paul B. Trescott in his work: Money, Banking and Economic Welfare in which the process of deposit creation (which would be known as money creation if more direct language were used), is briefly but aptly summarized. According to Dr. Trescott, in order to make a loan of $1,000 to a customer, "a bank needs only to credit his account with 1,000 in its books by a stroke of the pen." This process by which deposits are created consequently causes increase in the total money supply. Dr. Trescott further remarks: "The process of creating deposits is obviously a simple and painless one for the banks."
Page 194 Each of these political parties could not but be instrument of private money creative power. Such establishment of conflicting groups was a very efficient device of such private money creative power towards the maintenance of its own hegemony. Herein was venality and corruption enthroned. Such "Politicians" as turned to look a little too closely at the hand that fed them promptly found their "Perks" or "Political Rewards" cut off. Should any government begin to be restless and unwilling to accept the axiom that it should have no real say in that most serious matter of all, monetary emission, then it would be but a short time before private money creative power transferred its favors to the so-called opposition. Funds would be made available sufficient to guarantee their winning the "Election." At the same time, funds would be withdrawn from the "Political Party" previously in control of government; which would very likely means that in the following confusion, men more suitable and pliable would force their way to the top; so that even if that particular government was re-elected, private money creative power would have no further fears. The price was always continuance of those policies most needed by such private money creative power necessary for its own real purposes and therefore the continuance of its own hegemony. The greater part of the units of exchange as emitted by private money creative power are of no intrinsic value other than those denoted by precious metal symbols and with which the confidence of peoples and rulers was gained. Therefore, the cost of instituting that control of any state so "captured" by private money creative power, the bankers, was virtually nil, since clearly such state financed its own lamentable condition!
Page 195 It is clear that each unit issued into circulation, of fraudulent origin or otherwise, reduced by an exact valuation the worth of previous units transferring such loss of worth to the holder of the new unit. If later, with growth of industry deriving from the creation of such unit, all circulating units increased in worth, such increase in worth rarely caught up with the original decline in worth, or purchasing power of those previously existing units. The steady decline in worth of the unit of exchange at any place in any period of history will be sufficient proof in itself of the existence of secret creation and manipulation of abstract units of exchange by a relatively invisible force. Only under most unusual circumstances would even a sharp rise in the number of precious metal units circulating cause distinct and disturbing inflation of values without an accompanying fraudulent and secret expansion of the total number of working units through issuance of false receipts against non-existing valuables or warehoused goods, or by creation of transferable ledger credit page entry money against assignment collateral. Previous metals themselves soon wear out, disappear for purposes of speculation abroad or are hoarded. Thus the creation and issuance of money constitutes free gift to the issuer when such issuer be private person. It automatically and immediately despoils he who thinks himself to have money or to be a person of worth. It is an indirect and hidden form of taxation no less than any other such indirect or hidden tax. (Hence the existing situation in what is left of Anglo-Saxon governments: As their (unnecessary) expenditure beyond tax income is financed by the creation of debt directly to private persons which indeed are the Banks (that everyone so unquestioningly accepts these days as an established feature in living) under incredible conditions, units of exchange in circulation automatically suffer increase and consequently there is a steady fall in their purchasing power. Such fall in purchasing power immediately and arbitrarily constitutes a hidden tax on all who hold monetary units in one way or another. Levied in an unseen manner by those private persons who supposedly make the so-called loan to the government, its effects are not understood by the people, nor its origin. x Further than this hidden tax imposed with dubious legality, there is the absurdity of an interest rate, parallel to that of previous so- called loans, which creates a yearly interest bill which in itself necessitates further such borrowing, without ever thinking of paying off the principal; such system necessarily compels a government that has been trained to unquestioned acceptance of its financial liabilities to be servant in some considerable degree of those private persons, its supposed benefactors. For a clear statement of the workings of this unbelievable system in Canada, see "Brief submitted to the Royal Commission on Banking and Finance" by Mel Rowatt, Ottawa, 1964.)
Page 196 If in ancient times, such units of money, fraudulent or otherwise, were accepted by the simple folks as money, and seemed to serve equally well as had served that lawful money of earlier times yet again, which had been an order on the treasury or warehouses of the god of the city, then indeed, such units were money to all intents and purposes of the immediate needs of exchange. The fact of their legal issuance as a loan at interest against goods and services as collateral pledges, placed in the hands of their creator and issuer the power of total discrimination formerly recognized as being the sole and absolute prerogative of the god. As time went on, the fact of their creation, issue, acceptance, once the people had resigned themselves to slow inflation of values, placed in the hands of this private creator of these original fraudulent exchange units All-Power! Whatever the material on which the units of exchange were recorded, the customer still thought in terms of silver, as even today most still think in terms of gold, though none to speak of has circulated for thirty five years or so. So long as the ruler concurred in the conspiracy to denominate these exchange units as being as acceptable as those previously issued by the god and his people, then the power of preferment or rejection was soon in the hands of the banker as agent for what corresponded in that day to the international bankers of today; totally in opposition to that natural order of life in which the unit of exchange represents the will of the benevolent god.
Page 197 Needless to say, this person would not extend his preferment to those who instinct told him might be able to come to understand the real truth of the emptiness of those shadowed vaults from which his hand reached forth. It might safely be assumed that discrimination would be exercised against those whose obliteration was included in the overall plans of those mystic, if not satanic, figures that lurked in the inner sanctuaries of the temple, mint, or counting house; in which secret places were formulated those policies that decided the promotion or otherwise of kings, tyrants, dictators, or political parties. The extraordinary wealth and power according to the standards of the day of this secretive and apparently humble money power is shown clearly by the following extract from Babelon: "We know that the Greek bankers were money changers; all the more important financial transactions were negotiated through their agency. Their counters were the meeting place of businessmen and the stock market. They controlled at the same time the sea-borne trade and the affairs of caravans, above all, in Asia Minor. The exploitation of mines was often in their hands. These guardians of treasure received the precious metal deposits belonging to private persons or traders, keeping open account for their clients, thus accumulating enormous amounts; they hoarded, they loaned to Princes as well as private individuals. Listen then to the story of Nicholas of Damascus more eloquent than any commentary: "Wishing to carry the war into Caria, Alyatte, King of Lydia, (610-561 B.C.) gave the order to his commanders to bring him their contingents at Sardis, by a certain day. Amongst the generals chosen was Croesus, the oldest son of the King, at that time Governor of Adramyttium and the plain of Thebes. Negligent and prodigal, ill regarded by his father on account of his dissipations, very desirous of being received back into his father's good graces, and of confounding his calumniators, but not having the wherewithal to raise and hire mercenaries, the young Prince, in order to overcome his embarrassment, resolved to contract a loan. With this purpose in mind he sought out Dadyattes, the richest merchant of Lydia. This person, occupied with his ablutions, firstly let Croesus wait impatiently at his door. Then he agreed to receive him but this was only to refuse him money; "If I must lend to all the sons of Alyattes," he cried, "there will not be enough." Rebuffed, Croesus proceeded to Ephesus. There, an Ionian friend, Pamphaes, learning the reason of his visit, obtained a sum of a thousand gold staters from his father, Theocharides, who was possessed of considerable fortune, and which he hastened to bring to the necessitous prince. Thanks to these subsidies, Croesus, furnished with troops, was the first of all at the rendez-vous and regained the favor of his father who took him in as a partner in this expedition. Croesus later on revenged himself on Sadyattes who had turned him away, confiscating his treasure. The plunder taken from the unhappy banker was large enough to make two pillars of gold and the golden calves with which the temple of the Goddess was adorned. Later we see a banker of Caelenae, Pythas, of Lydian extraction, make a gift to King Darius of a plane tree in gold and a vine in gold. While afterwards, doubtless in fear that his immense fortune might only come to excite the covetousness of the prince, Pythias made up his mind to ward off the danger by making a concession. Spontaneously he offered Xerxes subsidies for the war."
Page 199 The above excerpt illustrates a clear cut case of effort by money power to control political succession; for the real reason of the refusal by Sadyattes of the loan to Croesus was that he had already pledged himself to the support of Panteleon, Croesus's half-brother who was clearly more "suitable" and "pliable" than the strong-minded Croesus who, Sadyattes probably knew via his spies, would be his enemy; although his offensive conduct towards a royal son would suggest he considered his position inviolable.
Page 200 His surly arrogance in causing young Croesus to wait at the door, and then refusing him his request in no pleasant manner, so typical of this class of person today as much in Croesus's day, undoubtedly caused Croesus to enquire a little deeply into this precious metal money "Racket" when he did become king, a "racket" which allowed low and unsavory persons to make a mockery of kingship. The results of his enquiry undoubtedly showed him that above all, for his kingship to be meaningful, monetary emission had to be removed from the control of private persons. Further evidence of history would suggest, in Lydia, Croesus destroyed the arrogance and power to subversion of this class of persons, not the most noble amongst this subjects, by the institution of the issue of equal weights of precious metal or coin, as state prerogative; thus he thought, returning to himself that essential power, the total control of monetary emission. That the reputed fate of Croesus after conquest by Cyrus was influenced by the longing for revenge of those leaders of finance at City, the main force behind Cyrus and his conquests. Hence the real source of the so rapid decay of all relatively recent civilizations and so-called empires of the last 5000 years, whose establishment was so often due to the behind the scenes activities of bankers as agents for an internationally spread network of bullion interests was the complete dearth of clean and noble men in places of control and power. Such natural and truly dedicated leadership had been destroyed, either by the planned discriminatory activities of the bankers or by the never dying fires of war that maintained these so-called Empires.
Page 201 Clearly in that day almost all money in circulation arrived there created and issued by private persons of a class stranger to the whole world, and whose only guide was never more than their indifference to the miseries of mankind. Today, despite the continuance of the naive belief of those who toil from day to day that this money is created and injected by the state, it is the same as in the days of the corruption and crumbling of the god-given distribution systems of the Ancient Orient, in the face of the attack on their integrity, by the privately issued commodity currencies of silver. This attack later having been intensified when that silver apex to the inverted pyramid of abstract money by which the great banking houses were manipulating the exchanges became further augmented by gold. The apparent beneficiaries of such systems were front men for a wider and more international system extending from China to Great Britain. The evidence of this world-wide financial system in Britain exists in the gold staters of the Iceni, Cassivellauni, Brigantes, etc. still existing, and which circulated long before Julius Caesar. Although gold was obtained in Wales and in Ireland, its use as money could only have been inspired from that central point where the original staters were minted, the Near East and the cities wherein dwelt the controllers of international trade and mining.
Page 202 Amongst other principles of political control by money power used in ancient times, just as much as today, was that which is known as liberalism. Liberalism meaning that he who hath shall give to him who hath not; not so much out of proper charity, but so that he who hath not may come to put his foot on the neck of him who (formerly) hat, and who now foolishly gives him his own strength. Thus money power made sure that Permanent Revolution would prevent any power group from having control long enough to see the true source of that which is the power of the ruler, if he is to be in the saddle, namely, monetary emission. Money Power, then as today, fully understood the necessity towards the continuance of its hegemony of the promotion of persons basically corrupt who possessed the wealth of kings though at the same time having the natural outlook of a slave, truly strange combination. One such family identified in ancient times was that Athenian family known as the Alkmeonidae, who, although suspected at the time of the Battle of Marathon as being the source of the heloigraph that sent information across the bay of Marathon to the Persian commanders, strangely enough continued to maintain power and place at Athens. Equally strange had been the awarding of the contract for the rebuilding of the temple at Delphi to this same family in exile from Athens.
Page 203 Pericles, scion of this notorious family, while being the front man for those forces driving Athens into war with Sparta, was the instigator of the Donatives and later, of theorica which allowed two oboli per person to the lessee of the Oratorium serving two corrupt purposes: 1. It made sure all the citizenry attended the plays thus keeping their minds off more serious matters as do cinema and television today. 2. It assure the lessee a certain profit. A third purpose would have been the maintenance of an unbalanced budget and consequent stimulation of government indebtedness to private money creative power, the bankers. If the sophistication of the Sales Tax was known to Periclean Athens, it may be assumed were also known the sophisticated practices in relation to government indebtedness as practiced particularly in Anglo-Saxon countries today.
Page 204 The establishment of theorica was to further increase necessity of government borrowing in time of war and so strengthen the hold of that so-called National Debt almost certainly held by themselves. Thus the principles of the total hegemony of private money creative power were as clearly understood by its masters yesterday as much as they are today. If in any way kings had understood the malignance of this growth that had penetrated the sub-structure of life it would have been short shrift for its controllers. Hence the necessity for an absolute secrecy most restrictive in its effects. Clay, the material on which records were kept throughout Babylonia at least, did not have any of the potential of paper so far as went the keeping of records.
Page 205 The City of Athens itself, its monetary system based directly on their internationally required products, silver and gold, was clearly under their immediate control. If the state owned the mints, it would make no difference. The states own the mints today for what it means; which is little or nothing so far as goes control of Monetary Emission. Where copper and bronze fiduciaries, as at Rome, circulated at values many times more than their value by weight of metal on the international bullion markets, clearly such bullion such as came on the market as military scrap would have been more useful towards the counterfeiting of such currencies than sold at its bullion value.
Page 207 Just as the copper rouble of Czarist Russia, issued at an overvaluation of 800% according to the value of copper bullion, brought into Russia a very inundation of counterfeits minted in Western Europe, thus international money power would have succeeded in diminishing the beneficial effects of such national currency, continuing to use Rome as the example, by mass counterfeiting which would have seen rapid increase once gold and silver commenced to circulate alongside the Aes after the Second Punic War. Clearly, the main purpose of the counterfeiters, as agents of the international silver bullion traders, would be to inject their counterfeits into circulation at the best overvaluation possible. Hence the steady disappearance of the precious metals from the circulation. This disappearance seems to have been a factor inspiring the vehemence of Cicero in his Oration: Pro Flaccus.
Page 208 Of Roman banking,Mommsen and Marquardt wrote: "The conduct of banking was done for the most part through the intermediary of the argentarii and of numularii: these last were known under the name of collectarii mensularii. In countries of Greek origin there was a kind of state bank as at Tenos; they were also in Egypt. Among the Romans, on the contrary, it was only in the most extraordinary circumstances that public banks were organised under the direction of state functionaries. It is through the intermediary of the argentarii that most payments were made, as also they were entrusted with the collection of moneys due, the placing of capitals at interest, the sale of merchandise, the liquidation of estates, investments of all kinds and the changing of foreign moneys. Page 212 Just as in today 95% of money in circulation is checks and assignments in transit, often written against credits granted by bankers where no actual funds previously existed but however without which the drive and turmoil of this civilization could not have come to be, so it was in Rome and in Greece. Indeed, for all those movements of vast armies, and movements of peoples through the consequent sale of slaves, and for the erection of all those great works in stone, the instigative factor was the same as the instigative factor behind all the mighty works and mysteries of today. It was none other than the driving force of that abstract money that none can see but that functions just the same as that which can be seen, the mysterious "Credit" of the banker; an instrument towards the willful redesign and enslavement of mankind. In the late Roman Commonwealth and early Empire, the assignments and checks in transit may not have equalled 95% of all money in circulation and it is by no means impossible that they were even more, taking into account the fact that today's high speed printing presses and coining machines, the fount of the 5% of the circulation that can be seen, can create these visible units on which the inverted pyramid of the invisible units is erected, at a hundred thousand or more times the speed of slaves striking and finishing metal units of money by hand. In Harper's Dictionary of Classified Literature and Antiquities, Roman banking is dealt with as follows: "The Argentarius thus did almost the same sort of business as a modern banker. Many persons entrusted all their capital to them and instances in which the argentarii made payments in the name of those whose money they had in their hand are mentioned very frequently. We also find that argentarii made payments for persons who had not deposited any money with them: this was equivalent to lending money; which in fact they often did for a certain percentage of interest."
Page 213 Thus banking was carried on in almost the same manner in the Roman world as in our world of today and to those who understand the significance of the practices of modern banking, nothing could be clearer. Even the ostentatious display of a metal safety deposit vault is recorded by the antiquarian Lanciana, doubtless to encourage people to leave their valuables with the bank and so strengthen their "confidence." Until the end of the numerical currency, with the resumption of the striking of silver money and therefore reentry into the orbit of the silver bullion brokers, mining of the precious metals had been forbidden in Italy and copper mining had been state monopoly, clearly indicating the futility of any discussion of whether the striking of coinage had been free or otherwise. Where the policy of the state had been to maintain an overvaluation of its bronze coinage relative to bullion prices, it is quite clear that it could in no way permit private individuals the privilege of the mints, free or otherwise. To do so would be to concede to them the power to manipulate prices levels and so, confounding the economy, dismay the rulers. Thus it was not until the time of Cicero that evidence appears of private persons bring bullion to the mints.
Page 214 Such matters of state finance seem to have been well understood during the middle commonwealth. However, as a result of the second Punic War and the desperate need to rearm quickly that followed these unfortunate battles, Rome had been obliged to allow the whole currency system to become based on the international valuation of silver as common denominator of values. It follows that it was only after Rome had thus surrendered her sovereign prerogative in money matters to the international silver bullion brokers that the growth of liberalism finally gave rise to the warlords known as the Triumvirate. With reckless abuse of the power of their Imperium through those bankers who supported them, particularly in relation to their right to strike money in the field, the warlords derived virtual independence from the auctoritas of an already corrupted senate. Thus with the rise of the warlords who were in effect tyrants under arms, each with his own Money Power, was the triumph of the empire concept.
Page 215 In the case of Caesar, his supporting bankers appear to have been the L. Cornelius Balba for whom the A. Hirtius of Caesar's "aes" coinage as issued in the country of the Treveri in Gaul, seems to have been agent with H. Clovius, emittor of Ceasar's brass issues. Clearly moneyers and bankers reigned supreme behind Caesar or Anthony or Octavian. Sosius, moneyer and financial organizer to Anthony, who also came from a banking family, when governor of Syria, dethroned Antigonus in 37 B.C. replacing him with Herod "The Great."
Page 216 The name of the bankers behind Augustus does not appear to be known but the extent of their massive operations is revealed by the widespread circulation of their heavy weight "aes" coinage right across the Empire. The question would be: was this excellent and adequate coinage emitted by an organization of similar character to the Bank of England or recent world power or the Federal Reserve? Both of which, though apparently state departments, in reality private international organizations set up international circle of bullion traders, or, as they are now generally known, the International Bankers. That which seems to be clear out of the fragments of information existing is that there was no such thing as a permanent interest bearing state indebtedness until the period which may mark the beginning of the decline of imperial Rome; the significance of which is that no Roman Government ever entirely lost control of that power so essential to the maintenance of its sovereignty, the power to directly inject the unit of exchange into circulation as according to its own needs. Of this period until the 3rd Century A.D., Professor Heichelheim wrote: "There were regular lending associations while usury constituted quite an important item in the legal provisions of the Corpus Iuris and the Talmud. Only State Usury was rare for the Roman State was still in a supreme position. Large interest-free loans advanced to the state by individual citizens for reward in the form of honors were quite frequent up to the 3rd Century A.D."
Page 217 Though Roman Government had endeavored to monopolize all sources of the material of its tangible currency and had prevented as much as possible the circulation of precious metal which clearly would undermine the integrity of the state issued unit of exchange, the grandiose aes, it still could not prevent counterfeits from entering circulation. It could not prevent the corrupt practices of oriental banking after the extensive re-entry of silver into circulation as a result of concessions made to the international bullion traders during the 2nd Punic War, nor thereafter, the functioning of Gresham's Law which such entailed. "Bad money drives out the good" which of course, depends on what is bad and what is good! Nor, therefore, could it control the activities of that underground that garnered the precious metal from the circulation of more profitable use elsewhere. As a consequence of the rejection by growing and powerful states of the claim of silver bullion interests that all tangible money should be founded on their product as base and common denominator of values and the creation and paying into circulation of their own tangible money, with value deriving from its scarcity or otherwise, using copper or bronze as the material on which its numbers were recorded, much copper or bronze that came the way of the international bullion brokers would have been used in an extensive industry devoted to counterfeiting of these fiduciary currencies.
Page 218 Thus would be created the conditions in which foreign money lenders would be better able to flourish and secure the establishment of their own peculiar systems of private money emission based usually on the fiction of valuables on deposit for safe-keeping. Under such systems, when fully under way, the next step would be political control through so-called political parties that such money power would bring into being, each necessarily dedicated to some "cause" through a so-called "leader," also chosen through the agency of such money power and by those forces it controlled. Such leaders would be "suitable" men and would be chosen because they were pliable too often naturally corrupt. Raised as likely as not from the lower ranks of society and therefore dazed by the dizzy heights to which fortune had lifted them, such men would be most likely to carry out without question the policies required for the fulfillment of their master's purposes and dreams; principally that of World Government; which should raise such masters to the position of world rulers, and therefore heirs of the god-kings of ancient days, in their own eyes; although to the eye of any clear-seeing man, they might better have been called the anti-god, or in the language of the naive Christians of a somewhat later time to the god-kings, demons.
CHAPTER XIV: MAN PROPOSES BUT GOD DISPOSES
Page 219 So speaking of ONE WORLD and of World Rule, a vision stirs of a distant past and of efforts towards World Rule in a smaller world of another day; a past of which so little remains other than shattered columns, cracked vases, a few precious metal coins and baked clay facsimiles thereof, and the writings of relatively a handful of the best of a former day, amongst which, strangely enough, still exist the works of the propagandists for money power such as Xenophon, and, as some say, Thucydides. Behind these scattered fragments and the unseen but still existing remains of millions of dead consumed in the constant wars of those ancient days, is the enigmatic vision of those half-Greek men amongst their records in the counting houses of Athens and the clear picture of them and their boy, Pericles, scion of that line of shifty Alkmeonidae, preparing under their guidance, plans for that Great War which would extend their financial hegemony across the whole Grecian world. If events proceeded along those lines, who knows, perhaps spread across the whole world. ONE WORLD might be brought to reality. After Klearchos and the edict of 432 B.C., the Athenian Empire must have fallen totally under the control of the banks. The edict ordering the subject allies to contribute money instead of ships meant that they were to be drained of silver. When the silver was gone, they would be obliged to come hat in hand to the Piraeus for that which the Great Bankers were now lending as money against real collateral; entries in the credit page of their ledger, or clay facsimiles of silver and gold money which once had been. This war would give the bankers complete control of Greece and all that such could bring about through their financial guidance.
Page 220 None would flourish from Colchis to Illyria except they so willed it. The instrument which was Athens and its allies would finally and forever destroy that Spartan hegemony that had so long denied them entry and had refused to accept their control through trade and money. All that proud Dorian aristocracy would be exterminated as these bankers had arranged long since for the aristocracy of so many other states and cities of the world. Their own future as a people destined to be lord over all would be secure. Gone forever would be that iron and leather money over issues they had no control. So with this vision before them, the war would commence and from that blood and fire that they, the bankers, would see to it would sweep the land could come nothing but good for them as they planned in the shadows of the counting houses. Under the stress of war, Sparta, through the agency of its aging king Archidamos, who was privately friend of the banker's boy, Pericles, would secretly accept their terms and permit the circulation of that which they loaned as money and permit private persons to possess and hoard silver and gold which, through the principles of banking, would soon be theirs in any case. However, it seemed as if even in that day, it could be said: "The best laid schemes of mice and men aft a'gley! A well planned stratagem that should have established forever the banker's dream of world empire through the creation of common money market would have removed all remaining resistance towards the realization of such dream could they but settle once and for all the problem of Sparta, was frustrated.
Page 221 Those precious metal pieces, those copper fiduciaries, those clay facsimiles, all those ledger entries, credits against no funds, money created out of think air as by the hand of the gods, all these were the secret of that endless urge and turmoil of the city states of Greece and of the tumult which finally culminated in the dark years of that miniature "World War" out of which could come no winner but the International Money Power, the Great Peloponnesian War, just as did these last two so-called "Great" world wars of our time.
Page 222 One thing stands out clearly from the fitting together of these tattered fragments relating to man and his money in very ancient days and that is ONE WORLD! Through the whole web of confusion, this faint design grows clearly more distinguishable concept of those who by nature of their secret trade, money, think they know all the paths of men and life; and because of the international character of that which they now control, delude themselves into believing that they, as designers of it all, rising into the firmament as gods, shall be heirs to it all. These secret classes who live shut in by the four walls of their exclusivity had originally believed that one more step would place them forever on the now empty thrones of the god-kings through the devious paths of knowledge of precious metal money creation and emission and all the deceits against mankind to which it loaned itself. With the establishment of the United Nations complex via the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, otherwise designated "The World Bank," knowing no master on this earth other than God or the Devil as the case may be, and with the advent of the settlement of international trade balances by transfer of Ledger Credit Page Entry Money, evinced by Paper Gold, as the final deceit, these secret classes behind it all well might believe that the total of human activity, whether towards War or Peace, depended on their instigation alone. With such triumphs resulting from the long years of planning and waiting, well might they have been justified in concluding that the end of a long and weary way towards WORLD RULE had been reached; perhaps the only question remaining being: "Who should be the Ruler?"
Page 223 Where in the fatuity of their vain imaginings was to have been a money changer's World Kingdom, and for them and theirs, are in reality the desolate ways of the gulf of time and infinity, no less for them as for all. And even should this ONE WORLD come to be, what of INTERNATIONAL MONEY POWER itself and its fatuous dream of a money changer's world dominion? And what will happen to it when the Indo-European who was its unwitting host and protector for so long is gone? The present day Chinese, for instance, who very well may be strong in the competition for the throne of the gods from whence ONE WORLD would be ruled, in the event of their accession to such throne, either by election or by force of arms, would not be likely to tolerate this finance core, privately and irresponsibly controlled, and from which has been drawn the threads of evil that have so long tormented the Indo-European world which long since has been totally entrapped in the web that has been woven. No more did the Chinese of ancient imperial days extend toleration to such activities throughout their long history. But it may not be doubted; little if anything will be left anyway. Even should this world we know be spared total obliteration, after the pestilence of decay, once again will be just shattered columns, crumbling concrete, paper that turns to dust with the touch and ruin over all. Life's urgent clamor will be followed by the silence of its extinction. The brief and fading evidence of all this turmoil will be but faint shadows on the accumulating dust.
Page 224 Revelations xvii 1. to xviii.21 "...And there came one of the seven angles which had the seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will show unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters: With whom the kings have committed fornication... So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet beast, full of names of blasphemy... And upon her forehead was a name written, a mystery, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND OF ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH. And he saith unto me, The waters which thou sawest where the whore sitteth are peoples, and multitudes, and nations and tongues. And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth. And the kings of the earth who have committed fornication and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning. For in one hour so great riches is come to nought. And every shipmaster and all the company in ships, and sailors, and as many as trade by the sea stood afar off. And they cast dust on their heads and they cried weeping and wailing, saying, Alas, alas that great city wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her costliness! for in one hour is she made desolate. End of book.
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