THE BABYLONIAN WOE Chapters IV-VIII by David Astle
CHAPTER IV. The Left Hand of Dawn V. Blood, Sorrow, and Silver VI. Babylon, Banking, and Bullion VII. Phrygia, Finance, and Front Man VIII. Tyrant and Trapezitae
CHAPTER IV: THE LEFT HAND OF DAWN
Page 63 According to Francois Lenormant and the Cambridge Ancient History, cheques were in use in Babylonia from the earliest times. Such use of cheques has also been verified as existing at Ur during the 3rd and 4th Millenniums B.C. by Sir Charles Wooley. As the only clear meaning that can be given to the Law No. 7 of Hammurabai indicates that the principles of private money creation through the creation of receipts against valuables on deposit with persons of "repute," the existence of all the abuses deriving from the exercise of the principles of inflation and deflation of the total number of receipts indicating given numbers of the unit of exchange, may be deemed to have existed. These inflations and deflations of the volume of abstract money, which indeed such false receipts may be called, associated with the custom of making payments by cheque drawn on "deposits" created by such receipts as issued by such persons "of repute" and which could be manipulated as suited themselves and their friends, were directed towards creation of a total monopoly of wealth and industry. As according to Paul Einzig, "a credit system developed in Greece long before the adoption of coinage," it may be supposed that Babylonian money power had already established branch agencies on the coast of Greece from which they loaned their clay "promises to pay" expressed in terms of silver no doubt, as against collateral; although the original loan had been but an entry in the ledger of an agent, the repayment demanded would be silver or slaves.
Page 64 These trading stations would have functioned very much as did the European trading stations on the West Coast of Africa during the 18th century from which agents of international money power could instigate internal warfare amongst the tribes, so that they would always have ready market for the products of their arms and other industries, the most desirable payment being precious metals and slaves, as much in ancient times as in modern times.
Page 65 If the latest estimate of the date of the battle of Perire in 1234 B.C. is correct, that the destruction of Egypt itself was planned over the period of 16 years or so following the sack of Troy (1250) is reasonable supposition. The organizing, arming and training of such widely diverse peoples as formed the army of King Meryey of Lybia would have taken many years of careful planning. Considering that the plunder of at least 10,000 swords and the other 120,000 pieces of military equipment represented years of work, Merneptah did not on this occasion melt them into bullion or sell them. He may have made the obvious move of using this plunder to arm the tribes of Epirus, the natural enemies of the Achaeans. These tribes were just as likely to have been slaves revolting from the mining industries established by the Babylonian money power. (According to Prof. Albright in The Amarna Letters from Palestine: "We cannot but be impressed with the smallness of the garrisons which were considered adequate by the local princes when clamoring for aid. A hundred men. Fifty. It is clear that the limiting factor to military force was the availability of arms, not with the availability of men.")
Page 66 Cadmus was one of the principal Babylonian agents to the Mycenaean world who lived during the reign of Burnaburiash who wrote to King Tutankamen of Egypt (1358-1353) pleading in no uncertain terms for gold.
Page 67 Alexander Del Mar, as a mining engineer, wrote respecting the mines from which the Babylonian financial hegemony drew their steady flow of gold and silver. The gold mines of the Thasians yielded an average annual product worth 80 talents (3 tons) although earlier they had an annual yield between two and three hundred talents. Philip of Macedon about 358 B.C. caused them to be reopened with the result that he obtained from the more than a thousand talents annually.
Page 68 Theophrastus, about 240 B.C. wrote concerning them: "Those who work in these mines cannot stand upright but are obliged to lie down either on their sides or their backs."
page 69 Valdivia declared that every castellano of gold from Peru cost a measure of human blood and tears. What was the cost to the Romans or Greeks, it would be hard to say but a human life for every ounce would probably be well within the mark.
Page 70 The Cambridge Economic History could be consulted, though no special significance, such as obviously exists, will be pointed out therein relating this search for silver and gold to the private money creative system already well-established in Babylonia at that time.
Page 71 The Dorians known to be the destroyers of Pylos were well organized. The tremendous walls of both Mycenae and Tyryns could not have been taken but by well organized armies with a strong and experience engineering corps.
Page 72 Money power, now with the plunder of half a dozen civilizations in its strong rooms, and a steady inflow of the precious metals deriving from the rapid expansion of the mining industry due to improved mining methods with tools of hardened iron, together with the availability of ample slave supplies as derived from all these wars, began to look around for new fields in which its power to create "Capital" could be used to its best advantage. Thus once again, they turned their eyes towards Greece. Encyclopediaa Brittanica (1898) says: "The Ionians derived the first impulses of their progress from a foreign source. The Phoenicians seem to have been little more than carriers from East to West of Egyptian, Assyrian or Babylonian ideas."
Page 74 By 993 B.C., agencies for Babylonian imperialism were once again well established in Greece.
Page 78 The petty but vigorous city states of Greece would form a good ground for experiment with money systems. The money changers scheming in their shaded courtyards of Babylonia hoped the way might be shown by which they and theirs might become Lords of the Earth; and indeed, whereby out of their midst might be set up that God-King who would preside over the governance of the Universe; its total and absolute ruler. And much of these strange yearnings came to be realized. The possibilities inherent in circulating pieces of precious metal with the seal of the state stamped thereon, as money, after the first major experiment therein in Lydia of Croesus, were fully exploited in Greece.
Page 79 Thus the power of rejection or appointment fell out of the withering hand of a decadent, if not dying priesthood, into that hand that moved over the disks of precious metal in the shadows of the counting house; and rather than noble and selfless men in positions of power came low and venal men wielding but the appearance of power. Such men being raised up from the blind mob exercised no more control or rule than that which the forces behind money creation and issuance permitted them to them. Greece was to the known world in the same way as was England during the 16th and 17th centuries when, due to the stealthy stimulation of a "credit" or abstract money economy, money greed injected into the nobility caused them to forget their trust. The major manifestation was their seizure of the common lands for the purposes of sheep pasture thus depriving the villagers of their rightful livelihood on the land and leaving them with no option but emigration into the cities to serve as labor in mine and factory. So far as Greece was concerned, onto an idyllic scene came men from that Aramaic speaking money power out of Syria and Aram who wept and moaned to the pitying Greek the slaughter of their people by the Assyrian.
Page 80 These men brought with them the knowledge of precious metal commodity exchange and amongst other deceptions, their knowledge of the possibilities of creation of money through the rackets of storage of valuables for safe custody; or the creation of credit as it is now euphemistically known; and its power towards the creation of monopoly ownership and control of industry. What must have been a cottage industry soon became industry organized on the basis of money wages in the case of freemen and therefore, only with labor, slave or free, trained to the concept of money, and the making of money, as the be-all-and-end-all in life.
CHAPTER V: BLOOD, SORROW, AND SILVER
Page 83 The growth of the 1st Millennium mining industry released a heavy flow of silver on to the bullion markets with the consequence that silver, further than being a standard for money accounting because an actual means of payment. This practice spread westward. This new silver together with the pyramid of ledger credit page entry money raised thereon had almost completely effaced even the memory of that law in relation to exchanges. These kings may have been aware that the source of all their power was the power inherent in the creation and emission of the units of exchange; which was the power to discriminate, the power to reject or prefer from amongst their subjects, and of course, they may not have been so aware. Of the evidence revealing the steps by which this god-power was undermined, the first and most important was the establishment of internal values in the exchanges within any state to the same standard as the value of silver in the international exchanges, which did not happen overnight. It is not until the Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian and Persian eras that evidence can be traced of the total degeneration of kingly power and of kings and so-called emperors as quite often being little more than gloriously be-medalled front men for private money creative power striving to create world-wide hegemony. As far back as 2500 B.C., Sargon of Akkhad proceeded to Anatolia probably to enforce the payment of interest on loans or repayment of principal. One of the reasons of the success of Cyrus, though but a petty Persian prince, is clear from his victory over Croesus of Lydia in 546 B.C. Croesus had offended international money power by seizure of their treasure held by their agent Sadyattes and by the total assumption of monetary issue by the state. Example had to be made of him to deter other princes from similar action and the ambitious Cyrus was obviously the one chosen for this purpose. According to the article on Babylonia in Encyclopaedia Britannica by Professor Sayce, Croesus had rashly joined battle with Cyrus without waiting for the arrival of his Babylonian allies under Nabu-Nahud, the father of Belshazzar of the Book of Daniel. It is more than likely that international money power, patron of the rise of Cyrus both through organization of his supplies of mercenary soldiers and the best of weapons, had been the principal influence in these events. Cyrus won the day and Croesus was totally humbled. Having proven his readiness to promote the policies of his financial backers, the relatively easy conquest of Babylon was arranged for Cyrus 14 years later. Cyrus was from then on designated "The Great." Kings and "conquerors" were also needed towards the maintenance of the steady flow of slaves, sufficient to take care of the fearful death rate in the mines, and no doubt, to permit of the opening of new mines due to the rapid expansion of the mining industry on account of the growth of the use of hardened iron tools. Therefore, not only was an increasing and continuous flow of slaves needed for the mines, but also for the industry to which the products of mines gave rise.
Page 86 There were two ways alone by which new supplies of precious metals became available, one was through mining using slave labor as mining with free labor was rarely profitable, and the other was through sack and plunder. For the first method, "Conquerors" were needed for free men did not willingly become mine slaves; for the second method "Conquerors" were obviously needed again for to cause a people to reveal and surrender their hidden hoards of precious metals would only be possible as result of the nights of terror immediately following on the "Conquest" and the abuse and rapine inflicted by lust-crazed soldiery. According to the Iliad, promise of gold and bronze plunder of Troy was the principal lure used by Agamemnon to bring Achilles back into the fight. Page 87 The states of Arvad, Symyra and Ushana, in the fact that they paid no tribute to Nineveh, while being much closer than the Aramean states, revealed themselves as ally; the absence of ay savege thrust by Assyria at that time agaisnt Israel or Tyre or Sideon would suggest such states, if not actually ally, as harboring forces in one form or another which would be controlled by agents of that highly secret international bullion broking fraternity, which indubitably existed, and which was connected to the camp followers and slave traders that must have been another host behind the Assyrian host, and therefore, profitably, enemy of the Aramean. Money power, international in scope, was deeply lodged in the heart of Assyria. Assyria for the time was their sword arm. Considering that Phoenician mining operations extended as far North as Britain where was mined tin so necessary in bronze manufacture, it may be assumed it dealt in Assyrian war captives.
Page 88 There is no missing the connection between the floods of slaves as released on to the world by the Assyrian conquests and the rapid expansion of silver and gold mining that was taking place all-over the known world at the time. The renewed stream of precious metal money that must have followed the sack of all those cities of Aram would have been accompanied by vast expansions of that which is known as "Credit." Bills of Exchange, Letters of Credit, the ubiquitous receipts for valuables reputedly on deposit: clay "Promises to Pay" all forming expansion in one form or another of the working money supply. Powerful banking houses combining the operations of banker, goldsmith, silversmith, etc, with branches in all major cities, were certainly able to manipulate the destinies of so-called empires, just as they have so done in this day. That Babylon itself should have been able to rise again and lead a frightened world against Assyria is proof, however, that international money power at the time was not monopoly of the Hebrew who now, whatever his origins, as ally of the Israelite who had come out of Egypt, appears clearly in history, a distinct entity.
Page 89 It seems the fall of the Assyrian in 605 B.C. was also the fall of the Hebrew. No sooner had Nabopolassar destroyed Assyrian military power than, at Carchemish, his son Nebuchadrezzar destroyed that of a resurgent Egypt under Pharaoh Necho, recently victor over Josiah of Judah on that ominous place of battle, Meggiddo, better known as Armageddon. (It is curious to note that a Jewish prince should go out of his way to seek battle with Necho who according to Biblical record (II Chronicles 36,21) "sent ambassadors to him saying, what have I to do with thee, thou king of Judah? I come not against thee this day but against the house wherewith I have war; for God commanded me: forbear thee from meddling with God, who is with me, that he destroy thee not.") In this battle of Carchemish in 586 B.C., Israel itself was totally destroyed. Its leaders were carried off to servitude in Babylon where they were allowed to maintain themselves as a racial and religious group as shown by the very fact that an intensely nationalistic prophet such as Ezekiel could exist at Chebar, preaching without restriction. In 536 B.C., the Persian forces under Cyrus entered the city and according to the Book of Daniel, Belshazzar, King of Babylon, was slain that night. Page 90 Shortly after that entry into the city, the "Children of Israel" were permitted to return to that which they considered their homeland and every assistance was given them. In the very first year of his reign, Cyrus issued a decree permitting the rebuilding of the temple at Jerusalem and the gold and silver vessels carried away by Nebuchadrezzar were returned to Sheshbazaar, the Prince of Judah. The 42,000 who went with him were but a small part of the Hebrew population of the dominions of Cyrus. The special concessions by Cyrus would suggest that he had received their substantial assistance. The Babylonian money power was completely international in outlook, whatever its outward profession. If in earlier Assyrian times such money power was certainly not the Hebrew, the fact of the existence of a powerful Hebrew influence in international finance in the Neo-Babylonian times seems a reasonable supposition. The Hebrew may have come to learn at that time those secret practices of the money changers' craft, which he was certainly forbidden in his native land, according to the laws of Moses.
Page 91 That ungodly and cruel order of Ezra compelling the Israelites to divorce their foreign wives after their return might very well have been related to the needs of total religious, racial and commercial security, whose leaders were deeply involved in the growth and control of modern banking which had lead and still leads mankind along a road that offers little peace or rest, and finally, exhaustion and calamity; a road of non-return. One thing becomes clear out of this turmoil of rising and falling "Empires" of the 1st Millennium, particularly that calamitous succession of Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian and Persian "Empires" and that is: in a world where treasure had become totally equated in the minds of people with "Wealth," as expressing large sums of the monetary unit, no sooner had one power gathered all such treasure in a given area into its storehouses, by conquest, plunder and sack, than such treasure, temporarily creating boom, moved on again to form the base of those "credits" granted by international money power towards the purchase of arms and the best of mercenary soldiers by that next power destined to arise and the new "conqueror." Dealing in money and bullion which was the foundation of the money system had become a highly specialized and closed trade now able to operate quite apart from the temples, even if in many cases the temples still continued to permit themselves to be used as front, and so had offered sanctity to those most sinister and destructive operations of the money, bullion and slave brokers, in themselves and their attitude towards mankind, the antithesis of God, the Anti-God.
page 92 The money masters had only one purpose besides maintenance of secrecy: which was growth. Those through whom they worked were too often the criminal castes; criminal because the nature of so much of their activities such as fencing, counterfeiting, clipping sweating of coins, was criminal. Towards this purpose,they sought the total destruction of that natural order of life of god, king, priesthood and temple. For man living with hope, guided by his trained shepherds had to be substituted an order of the exploitation of mankind. The unfortunate masses of the Ancient Orient had no idea that the ruler they saw, far from being the Son of God on Earth, was in reality a puppet manipulated by that conspiratorial forced exerted by those controllers of precious metal bullion in the Arakaix speaking middle classes. These powerful classes could have had no more than a secret contempt for the gods, kings, priesthood of the peoples amongst whom they lived, able as they were to bring about the decay or growth of power of those whose undoing they planned. They themselves had come to sit in the place of the gods. From this time on it seems, there was not even that periodic interference of the king against the moneylender.
Page 93 Cruel private monopolization of wealth and capital grew and where the people had been sheep in the flock, and the king their loving and devoted guide, the people became lost, driven as they were by the crazed would masquerading in the place of the shepherd's diligent sheep dog. In this time, as today, the people were almost entirely at the mercy of the private persons controlling their money. The policies of these controllers as internationalists were necessarily directed towards the stimulation of war against the well-being of mankind. Frequently, wars were above all towards the destruction of the natural system of rule, secondly towards the reinjection into the system of hoarded coin and bullion and consequent reinflation of the money supply, thirdly but not least important, the gathering of a new crop of slaves so necessary to the foundation of their money power and the maintenance of their international hegemony in consequence. (The nobility have always been the first to disappear in major warfare. As leaders of their men, their young men are the first to die. During the recent first "Great" war, it may be safely said that the best part of the young men of the natural aristocracy of Europe had perished by 1917.)
CHAPTER VI: BABYLON, BANKING AND BULLION
Page 94 The ramifications of Babylonian banking as operated from Nineveh during the 8th and 7th centuries extended in more or less degree over that total area from Tartessus to India. Acolytes of the bankers who sought their own fields abroad, or prominent but unsuspecting natives chosen for penetration as "suitable;" suitability, as in today, being advanced training in money worship, basic lack of integrity, and preferably some black mark in their secret past making them amenable to pressure and willing to grind down their own kind or sell them to the slave trader without the gate and without mercy and without compunction.
Page 95 Those refugees skilled in money, being dispossessed and with therefore bitterness in their hearts, would have served best. They would have considered that alignment with enemy and destroyer of that which had destroyed them. Such silver money of the same weight and fineness as the Babylonian shekel, 85 grains to the drachma, thus the financial organization was outright extension of the Babylonian imperialism. In the so-called Solonian monetary reforms, the Mina consisted of 73 drachmas.
Page 96 Athenians now had a currency based on the old bronze Age "Euboic" talent and mina and his standard going was the same weight as the Corinthians, Samkians and Cyrenaeans but with the Pheidonian system of dividing his stater into two drachmas and his drachma into six obols. Under Solon, she adjusted her money to the Euboic talent. The very fact of the stress on weight shows that such reforms were designed for, and perhaps only really understood by, a group that was only concerned with silver by weight. None other than our old friends the international bankers or bullion brokers. By the laws of Lycurgus at Sparta, they and their agents had virtually been ejected. Solon was more likely the front man they put up to put into effect a program of loans to industrial workers on the security of their wages. No longer would the banks or moneylenders lend to the peasantry being that now they were forbidden to bind their persons as collateral security and sell them into slavery across the seas in the event of non-payment.
Page 98 The weights of drachma and of shekel, just as the Roman denarius issued to practically the same way, clearly created extension of the Common Money Market. Profit that the international bullion traders had guaranteed themselves by prevailing on rulers to maintain the ratio of silver as to gold at 13:1 as opposed to 6.5:1 as in India. The real significance of the monetary reforms of Solon was the separation of Athens from the financial hegemony of Babylonia which may have been rendered ineffective by the Laws of Lycurgus
Page 99 It was forbidden to settle unfavorable trade balances with slaves. Henceforth there would be much more money circulating in Athens and therefore a healthier industry; which history records as being exactly what transpired. According to Grote, the banking system after Solon had a more beneficial character. The old noxious contracts, "mere snare for the liberty of a poor free man and his children," disappeared and loans of money "took their place founded on property and prospective earnings of the debtor." Thus to such an extent did Athens abjure the international bankers through the seiachtheia ("shaking-off-of-burdens"), she in reality severed from Babylonian Imperialism and its financial hegemony world wide and established herself as minor competitive force, as was shown by the Persian efforts at encirclement; towards which their seizure of control of the Thracian mines in 512 B.C. constituted the first clear step. Even if the reforms of Solon were not so absolute as those of Lycurgus of Sparta and still left silver as the material of the basic monetary unit, and therefore still left Athens at the mercy of those forces whose secret activities contributed towards the functioning of what is known as Gresham's Law, "Bad money drives out the good," the Persian move of 512 B.C. by no means shook the strength of Athens and her allies. While securing ship timbers for the fleets they were planning and also further silver supplies, Persia, wherein nested international money power at that time, thought that she would be cutting off from Athens these commodities so essential to the promotion of war industry. Somehow Athens still continued to maintain itself free of this Babylonian Imperialism which, now sheltered behind Persia, was able to defeat the "Great King."
Page 100 Whether the "Great King" remained great or Athens took his place was not of much importance. Out of war could only come good to the bankers and theirs. They would see that none who might be a real threat to them would achieve similar power to theirs, that is, from an international standpoint. To sum up, so far as pre-Solonian Athens was concerned, a simple unlettered people offered all the luxuries of another world as against the new money whose function is so little understood by lettered people even in this day, without going back 2500 years, had become swamped in debt. The law in respect to this debt had been upheld by a corrupted nobility in favor of the bankers. Where credit institutions had long since existed, in a land of relatively simple folk where the ways of money were no more understood than they are today, by loans of ledger credit page entry money against collateral, demanding repayment in silver coinage, Money Power obviously had made a very good thing of it in Greece. By the bankers of a given area using the same standard weight of its coinage, calling loans in unison, the money supply could be shrunk to almost nothing; on which, their agents abroad could send ships and buy crops and men and women and children for a song.
Page 101 The Laws of the Archon Solon, by making no provision for employment for the freed debt slaves, nor providing redistribution of the land, gave the Athenian manufacturer that labor which he needed. The monetary reforms of Solon reducing the export of coin or bullion gave manufacturers the money they also needed, for they remained the only market for the funds of the bankers who had no option but to find new lands to "conquer" after their virtual ejection by the laws of Lycurgus of Sparta. The laws of Solon were the rejection, compulsory or otherwise, by all classes of the Babylonian Money Power including that growing class who might now be called National Money Power. (The first act of Solon was abrogation of the privilege of silver mining and the privilege of money issuance by the nobility but as through being farmed out by them to the Arameo-Phoenician traders, i.e., the Babylonian Money Power.
CHAPTER VII: PHRYGIA, FINANCE, AND FRONT MAN
Page 102 The privately issued electrum staters of Lydia were something Assyria badly needed. Military organizations would need financial organization and the purchase of the best arms. Assyria needed Phrygian arms and had to accept such financial terms as the suppliers decreed and it may be assumed such terms stipulated payment in gold and silver. The extraordinary treasure cannot be explained any other way. It had to be derived from plunder.
Page 104 Lydia, peasant kingdom, could very well have functioned in a similar manner to Switzerland in the nature of a bullion broker's or international banker's refuge and account for the ferocity of the destruction by Cyrus of the hapless Croesus who was flayed alive as an example, no doubt, to remind other kings that while their power was national, there was another power which was international; above and beyond the power of petty kings. The other metals no longer deemed precious, copper, bronze and iron, left on the battlefield, would fall into their hands and offered considerable profits as counterfeits in many northern states which used copper or iron fiduciary currencies. Thus the Greek was foundation of Greek industry but the Aramean or Phoenician brought ways of money and banking from the great banking houses of Babylonia.
Page 105 From the reign of Nabopolassar, father of Nebuchadrezar, to the reign of Darius, about 100 years, evidence remains in the clay cheques and deeds found. Much more evidence of the existence of powerful banking and merchant institutions has come to light. The Egibi Sons, and the Murassu, who according to Prof. Humphrey Michell in "The Economics of Ancient Greece, p 334, carried on very large and complicated business, even by modern standards. Just as Babylonian banking houses maintained extensive branches in the Sumerian cities, they maintained branches within any state within the limits of the communications of the day. It would not be long before the skill of the Aramean at letters, money, counterfeit or otherwise, and in organization of industry, stirred the peasant kingdom of Greece. By the systematic spreading of money madness amongst the landed aristocracy, their peoples and their labors had now become but cyphers; desirable wealth assessed as according to the figures in the banker's book.
Page 106 The people who drifted into the cities as slave or freeman and found employment in manufacturies of these strangers who by now were calling themselves Greeks and bearing Greek names, not unnaturally gave their allegiance to the new hand that fed them. They drank at the fountain of hatred of their former masters who had betrayed both their people and themselves. Among the first steps towards the total monetization of the wealth and labor to a precious metal standard controllable by the great banking houses of Babylonia, was the permitting of the striking of a silver coinage on the island of Aegina by Pheidon, "progressive" King of Argos in 680 B.C. "Progressive" meant a king ready to listen to the blandishments of money power, luring him into that trap which was the use of precious metal currency over which he could have relatively little control; since silver as its base was obtained only at great expense by slave labor at localities too often far distant. Use of silver placed the economy, through the practices of banking, in the hands of the international bullion controllers. That the bankers, known as trapezitae, conducted almost the same business as bankers today, is clearly indicated in Seffert's Classical Dictionary even if, as the word trapezitae indicates, they but sat at a bench in the market place instead of sitting in gilded halls surmounted by sixty story buildings as indeed they do today. Within the limits of clay tablet and stylus, the same confidence game was operated though probably there were few who understood it as being such.
Page 107 Yesterday it was a conspiracy against the men of a city or small state, today a conspiracy against the whole world. Those that have their hands on the throttle of this all embracing evil do not bear the faintest resemblance to demons in hell or gods. They are but pudgy and sly little men as much overwhelmed by the monster they have raised as are the foolish nations that permitted them to do so Seffert says: "Bankers were called trapezitae by the Greeks because they sat at tables in the marketplaces, the center of all business transactions. They acted as money changers exchanging for a commission heavy money or gold into smaller coin and the moneys of different systems with each other. They also acted as moneylenders. they received money on deposit for for safe custody. If a citizen had a large sum of money, he probably preferred to put it in a bank. The bankers kept strict account of all monies in their charge. If a person were making a payment to another who was a depositor at the same bank, the banker would simply transfer the requisite sum from one account to another. Business of this kind was generally in the hands of resident aliens."
Page 108 Within the limits of clay tablets and stylus, every fraudulent practice known to banking would have been practiced. The commonly accepted idea that instruments used in foreign trade such as Letters of Credit, Bills of Exchange, etc. were a discovery of the 12th century A.D. is clearly proved erroneous by the sentence "Strangers too found that the banks offered them such facilities that they were glad to make considerable use of them." Therefore, behind the monetary reforms of King Pheidon of Argos, we must see not the wonder of what so many so-called scholars call the "Invention" of coinage in Greece but the comings and goings of strange aliens with letters from mysterious "Important" men who dwelt in Tyre, or Sidon or Babylonia itself. Behind the Aramaic-speaking banker came the slave trader and it was not long before the poor people found that king's law was no longer for them and was but a measure behind which these glib and double-talking bankers operated. "We must protect the people's savings!" no doubt was their cry, yesterday, as in today. Such silver coinage would have been no more than a few seen symbols, the apex of an inverted pyramid of unseen or abstract symbols of which only the master really understood the meaning and purpose, and only he knew how to manipulate.
Page 109 Through manipulation of these "Credits" that people now thought was their money, King Pheidon himself could have been tricked into believing himself a slave because he could not repay his so-called "debt." However, the banker needed the king for a while yet. In the meantime, peasantry and lesser nobility were drawn into this trap of irredeemable debt, and as the king's law had to be upheld, they and their families would be sold into that cruel slave system that was growing up all over the Mediterranean world and through which, money economy, now grown into a veritable monster, could find docile labor and against which the reforms of Solon were directed. History should not be mislead by the Greek names. Oskar Seffert states quite clearly that the bankers or trapezitae were resident aliens. It would have been no more difficult than it is in these days to secure the services of a front man to promote their interests. Just as aliens who seek power amongst whatever people they may be so often change their names to suit the circumstances while retaining allegiance to that group into which they were born, so it was in that day where worship of money had replaced worship of the gods. Out of weakening of kingly rule at Athens and growth of "Aristocratic" democracy, doubtless deriving from concession to international money power for its assistance against the Dorian and before whom Athens never fell, came replacement of the title Wanax indicating god-king for that of Archon-Basileus of lesser degree.
Page 110 The soul destruction sown amongst them as a consequence of their betrayal into slavery derived those conditions out of which the so- called tyrant rose to power. Out of "money-making" rose those men who fronted for the conspiratorial money power of the age. Such men steered the restless aspirations of the wage slaves, those dispossessed masses who had no more understanding than themselves of that force by which they were both being manipulated.
CHAPTER VIII: TYRANT AND TRAPEZITAE
Page 111 Of the tyrants of Greece, Professor Heichelheim wrote: "These tyrants were for the most part members of the nobility themselves who had made the grade using the new political and economic possibilities of their time to overthrow their own equals and subdue their whole home state temporarily. The tyrants were often compelled to introduce the coin economy pattern in the area over which they ruled or at least promote its development officially in order to get the upper hand over their enemies. To stabilize the position of the peasantry on the land and to expand and rebuild state economy, a central distribution of money and goods is characteristic of tyrant economy." The above remarks indicate there were "new political and economic possibilities" between 650 and 500 B.C. when the tyrannies flourished most of all. What were these new "new political and economic possibilities?" The answer is arrived at readily: they derived from the activities of the agents of the international silver bullion brokers. The opportunities clearly were for those who assisted in the monetization of the city and all its activities and possessions, and its population, man, woman and child, and their possessions too, and thereby assisted in the firm establishment of the rule of the bankers.
Page 112 The peasants were oppressed by the rich and encouraged to get into debt and then were reduced to slavery and exile; slaves began to compete with free labor. Ambitious individuals capitalized in this discontent to overthrow the constituted government and established themselves as tyrants in all the Greek cities with the notable exception of Sparta. The kings and aristocracies, as a derivative of their folly in permitting the unrestricted activities of the new bankers who were now well established in all the major cities of Greece outside of Sparta, saw a class of entrepreneurs come into being, largely foreigners and men of lowly origin. In the same manner during the 16th and 17th centuries A.D., the worthy tradesmen of London, while still deferring to the natural nobility of the land, more and more realized that they too were lords of the land through their control of labor by the wage rates and needed little encouragement from the true source of their power, the bullion brokers, towards hatred of a government which gave them little say. Until at least Charles I, this government still continued to consider one of its main duties was to prevent the oppression of the poor and the trusting, regardless of the needs of trade. The similar class arose in Greece some two thousand years earlier realized that they were now in actuality the lords of the land through labor, which they now owned outright as slaves or controlled as through daily wages. If the land itself they did not own or control, it mattered not; for there were voices that told them that land too was but a trade and tool in the new order and the lord himself, in the money creator's kingdom on earth, was as assessable in coin as was potter, weaver or armorer.
Page 113 And so the stage was set for the arrival of the tyrant financed into existence by the bankers towards the total destruction of the old way of life, such as, in the case of Sparta, had been outstandingly proven by the renewal of the ancient life system through the financial and social reforms of Lycurgus. "In order to level the class of large landowners and nobles economically, Theagenees of Megara simply allowed their herds of cattle to be slaughtered without remuneration. A frequent political device of tyrants was to murder or banish nobles, confiscate their possessions and redistribute their wealth among the poor." The poor, needless to say, soon returned to being poor again. The word "poor" having existed long before the crafty banker arranged that the measure of poverty and riches was in that number of privately issued units of exchange in which a man could be assessed according to success or failure in the conflict of life, as he the banker had established it.
Page 114 The tyrant was that force by which international money power destroyed all resistance to its total ownership of life and labor and human hope. The status of all, slave or free, depended on their relations with the trapezitae who presided at their tables in the agora. The tyrant, in his capacity as ruler, would above all be guided instrument; but that the tyrant no more understood the true significance of his existence than do these so-called revolutionary "leaders" of today, is a certainty. The revolutions of today are clearly similar in their origin to those of the time of the tyrants. More than ample evidence exists of those persons designated international bankers in "Modern Times" as also the instigative factor in the principal so-called revolutions of the last 300 years. According to Commander Guy Carr (Pawns in the Game), the so-called English revolution was totally the work of international bullion brokers lodged in Amsterdam although the loan of silver bullion to Queen Elizabeth came from Antwerp.
Page 115 Also appearing to have been a factor in such revolution as witting or unwitting agents of the Amsterdam bullion brokers who took the initiative in the financing of Cromwell which allowed him to obtain the best arms. The regrowth of the commercial power of these "New Dutch" derived from the bullion trade which they seemed to continue to control internationally due to connections in Spain who directed toward them a great part of the flood of precious metals which was being wrung out of the wretched natives of South America, not to speak of that which came from Japan, China and India. No sooner did these precious metals arrive in Spain or Portugal than almost immediately they moved on to other parts in settlement of trade debit balances created largely by the Spanish wars in Europe, particularly in Italy. (According to the letters of Quang Chang Ling, History of Precious Metals, "From the opening of trade to 1640, the British first acquired territory in Hindustan, three of your European nations alone took a thousand million dollars in gold and silver from Asia.)
Page 116 The superfluity of the precious metals was one of the instigative factors in the growth of "Banking" which had spread from Venice and Genoa to Amsterdam and from thence to London where, evinced by the activities of the goldsmiths, it had set itself up against kings, as the whole story of the downfall of Charles I would indicate. The changing political character of Northern Europe derived from the rise in prices which came about both as a result of the tremendous influx of new precious metals and private abstract money creation, which affected prices equally with that precious metal that could be seen as it circulated as money. Kings, often in the hands of venal advisors, were no longer able to make both ends meet and not understanding the true nature of the activities of the bankers or goldsmiths, they neither knew how to put a stop to such activities nor, if they permitted them, how to tax them. The sullen resistance experienced by Charles I from the puritanical and self-righteous burghers of the City of London, most of whom were by then deeply beholden to the goldsmiths for their finances, who, in their turn, were beholden to the Amsterdam bullion brokers for the gold they sometimes needed in a hurry when rumor went round that their receipts which circulated as money, were largely false and had nothing behind them except lies, may be traced to these same bullion brokers of Amsterdam. Their policy above all required the weakening of kingship in England for the "Banking" monopoly they saw they might come to institute in England could not flourish with a king on the throne such as Charles who truly regarded himself as the Lord's anointed. A king who was aware of the source of his power, even if not widely instructed therein, that is to say who was aware of the true meaning of monetary creation and emission relative to his kingship, was not to their liking. The reinstitution of the office of a Royal Exchanger, abolished by Henry VIII in 1529 on the advice of Sir Thomas Gresham, was also not much to their liking, nor the seizure by Charles of the #130,000 deposited in the Tower, supposedly by the London merchants.
Page 117 The reinstitution of the office of the Royal Exchanger meant that one of the major sources of revenue of the goldsmiths, and therefore their masters, the bullion brokers, was cut off: they were denied the opportunity to clip, or sweat, or retain for export those full-weight coins that came their way. "The unsafe condition of a Bank under a Monarchy." These words of Pepys indicate the trend of thought of certain circles at the time. Although Charles I could not be considered the most effective opposition to banking and its proponents, nevertheless, he was in the way; even if the cure to him - Cromwell - proved perhaps to be even more in the way! Cromwell's "Bills of Public Faith," of which little record remains, a true currency being intrinsically valueless, state issued, and inconvertible, must have been cause for grave misgivings on the part of the goldsmiths, and all concerned, as to whether they had done right in supporting the enemies of the king. It was not long after the return to the throne of England of the Stuart Line in the person of the amenable Charles II, in 1660, that these "Bills of Public Faith," the real key to sovereignty, were repudiated; showing that the son had even less understanding of the realities of money than had the father. (Charles II was totally in the hands of the bankers and goldsmiths as is revealed by the following extract from D. MacPherson's "Annals of Commerce P. 428: "Charles being in want of money, the bankers took 10% of him barefacedly, and by private contracts on many bills, orders, tallies and debts of that King, they got 20%, sometimes 30% to the great dishonor of the Government. This great gain induced the Goldsmiths to become more and more lenders to the King, to anticipate all the revenues, to take every grant of Parliament into pawn as soon as it was given; also to out-vie each other in buying and taking to pawn bills, orders and tallies, so that in effect, all the revenue passed through their hands.) To return to Cromwell and the principal factors that lead up to his success, and his assumption of the powers of tyranny: when it became clear that Cromwell was as "suitable" a man as could be found to fit the needs of the occasion, he was supplied with the gifted Fernandez Carvajal, for the reorganization of his army, which became know as the "Model Army."
Page 118 Trained revolutionaries then poured into the country, presiding over whom was the Portuguese Ambassador, a De Souza, who loaned them the diplomatic immunity of his house for their meetings. One such revolutionary was known today as Calvin, whose father had been fiscal agent to a prominent French Bishop. These revolutionary leaders exploited the use of truculent mobs for the gaining of political ends. According to Guy Carr, "The evidence which absolutely convicts Oliver Cromwell of participating in the revolutionary plot was obtained in a Lord Alfred Douglas article who explained that he had come into possession of letters written to and answered by Cromwell. They are written in German. On entry dated June 16, 1647 reads: From O.C. (Oliver Cromwell) to Ebenezer Pratt. "In return for financial support will advocate admission... to England; this however impossible while Charles living. Charles cannot be executed without trial, adequate grounds for which do not at present exist. Therefore, advise that Charles be assassinated, but will have nothing to do with the procuring of an assassin, though willing to help in his escape." In reply to this dispatch, E. Pratt wrote a letter dated July 12 1647 to Oliver Cromwell: "Will grant financial aid as soon as Charles removed and... admitted. Assassination too dangerous. Charles should be given an opportunity to escape. His recapture will then make trial and execution possible. The support will be liberal but useless to discuss terms until trial commences."
Page 119 On Nov. 12th, Charles was given the opportunity to escape. He was, of course, recaptured. Hollis and Ludlow, authorities on this chapter of history, are both on record as considering the flight as a stratagem of Cromwell. Cromwell had the British Parliament purged of most of the members he knew were loyal to the King. Notwithstanding, the majority agreed "That the concessions offered by the King were satisfactory to a settlement." Any such settlement would have disqualified Cromwell from receiving the blood money so he struck again. He order Colonel Hyde to purge Parliament of those members who had voted in favor of a settlement with the King. What then happened is referred to as "Pryde's purge." When the purge was finished, fifty members remained. They are recorded as the "Rump Parliament." They usurped absolute power. On Jan. 9, 1649, Charles was publicly beheaded. Cromwell received his blood money just as Judas had done. The following statements of Benjamin Franklin in reference to the causes of the American Revolution are equally illuminated. "About this time, 1763, Franklin made a visit to England. While there he was asked how he accounted for the prosperous condition of the colonies. His reply was: "That is simple. It is only because in the colonies we issue our own money. It is called "Colonial Scrip" and we issue it in the proper proportion to the demands of trade and industry." (Senate Document No. 23, page 98, by Robert L. Owen, Chairman, Committee on Banking and Currency, United States Senate.)
Page 120 Robert Owen continues: It was not very long until this information was brought to the Rothschild Bank, and they saw that here was a nation ready to be exploited; here was a nation setting up an example that they could issue their own money instead of the money coming through the Banks. The Rothschild's Bank caused a bill to be introduced in the English Parliament, therefore, which provided that no colony of England could issue its own money. They had to use English money. Consequently, the colonies were compelled to discard their "Scrip" and mortgage themselves to the Bank of England (the Amsterdam Bullion brokers to get money. For the first time in the history of the United States, our money began to be based on debt. "Benjamin Franklin stated that in one year from that date, the streets of the colonies were filled with the unemployed, because when England exchanged with them, she gave them only half as many units in payment in borrowed money from Rothschild as they had in Scrip. Their circulating medium of exchange was reduced 50% and everyone became unemployed according to Franklin's own statement." Continuing the quote from Senate Document No. 23: "Mr. Franklin went further than that. He said that this was the original cause of the revolutionary war. In his own language: "The colonies would gladly have borne the little tax on tea and other matters had it not been that England took away from the colonies their money which created unemployment and dissatisfaction."
Page 121 The French Revolution, so-called, left much less evidence of its origins than the so-called Russian Revolution 120 years later, though the instigating factor is clear enough. "The French Revolution" by Nesta Webster, "The Life of Napoleon" by Sir Walter Scott, "God and the Goldsmiths" by McNair Wilson give light on this matter. A study of Louis XV and his relations to the Paris Brothers, the state tax farmers, yields impressions. The writings of Necker, front man for the international bankers of the time, and who Mirabeau described as "the Hero who arrived by famine" and also the writings of Turgot, finance Minister to Louis XVI, who fought against Necker and the evil fraternity behind him, and who nicely summed up the situation in his first memorandum to Louis XVI as follows: "So long as finance shall be continually subject to the old expedients in order to provide for state services, your Majesty will always be dependent on financiers, and they ever will be the masters, and by maneuvers belonging to their trade they will frustrate the most important operations. Thus the government can never feel itself at ease, it can never be acknowledged as able to sustain itself, because the discontents and impatience of the people are always the means made use of by intriguing and ill-disposed men in order to excite disturbance." Clearly Minister Turgot was a man of integrity and the fact that it was only after prolonged scheming on the part of the international bankers, who mostly lived outside France, that he was dismissed, would suggest that his master also sought to do that which he was born to do, that is to love, guide and protect the people. But neither master nor man understood the strength of the undercurrents which flowed, nor, the true meaning of "L'etat, c'est moi!" which means "I am the fount of life. I am that point through which the Almighty God injects your money amongst you that binds you together as one. I, and no other; not my steward, nor servant, faithful or unfaithful."
Page 122 The men of intrigue he referred to, were such stewards, the international bankers. These men, standing behind thrones, intercepted that God-power which was the force behind "l'etat c'est moi," and controlling the value of money, and therefore price levels, with responsibility only to them and theirs, confused the nations with their sly schemes of fatuous purpose. The instigating factor of the Russian Revolution relating to its financing is in the book "Czarism and Revolution" by Arsene De Goulevitch, a former officer of the Czar's army and founder of the Union for the Defence of Oppressed Peoples. One of the principal sources of finances for the International Revolutionary Movement prior to 1917 was Jacob Schiff of the International banking firm Kuhn, Loeb based in New York city. It was recorded that twelve million dollars had been donated to the revolutionaries by Schiff preceding the war of 1914-1918. The extensive funds so necessary towards the effective disruption of a major state appear to have come from certain British and American circles. In his book, "My Life," Trotsky speaks of a large loan granted in 1907 by a "financier" belong to the Liberal Party in Britain.
Page 123 The conduct of Jacob Schiff was that of an unyielding anti-csar enemy. His grandson John estimated that "the old man sunk about $20 million for the triumph of bolshevism in Russia." (Jacob Schiff openly boasted of having been instrumental in overthrowing the Czarist regime.") According to Goulevitch, various other persons well known in the world of international banking, whatever the expression "International Banking" might mean, supported revolutionary activities. (According to Dr. Carroll Quigley, outstanding characteristics of the international bankers were: 1) they were cosmopolitan and international; 2) they were close to governments and were particularly concerned with questions of government debts, including foreign government debts, even in areas which seemed, at first glance, poor risks, like Egypt, Persia, Ottoman Turkey, Imperial China and Latin America; 3) their interests were almost exclusively in bonds and very rarely in goods since they admired "liquidity"; 4) they were fanatical devotees of deflation (which they called "sound" money from its close association with high interest rates and a high value of money) and of the gold standard; 5) they were almost equally devoted to secrecy and the secret use of financial influence in political life. These bankers came to be called "international bankers" and were known as "merchant bankers" in England, "private bankers" in France and "investment bankers" in the United States. Everywhere, they were sharply distinguishable from other, more obvious, kinds of banks, such as savings banks or commercial banks.) The ruin to the states of the world set on foot by these immensely rich but otherwise trifling persons, whose solidarity, however, had enabled them to so profit from the unbelievable expansion of the use of Ledger Credit Page Entry Money in the Anglo-Saxon banking systems, could not better demonstrate the absurdity of allowing private, and therefore irresponsible, persons to exercise that power which should belong to the gods alone, the power inherent in the creation and issuance of the Unit of Exchange amongst the peoples.
Page 124 In a speech six weeks before the fall of the Kerensky government, Lenin made one of his most significant recommendations and perhaps the one most suggestive of the possibility of his sincerity, even if in the rest he seems to have been misguided. It was the one recommendation most indicative of his awareness of the deep-seated causes of the conditions that had given rise to himself and what he stood for. He recommended the total nationalization of banking. In his own words, he says "all banks to be merged into one and the state control its operations, that is the nationalization of the banks. To talk about the regularization of banks means either to betray complete ignorance or to fool the simple folk with high-sounding words. To control the delivery of bread, or in general, the production and distribution of goods, without controlling banking practices, is an absurdity." (Works of Lenin, XIV: Pt. 2; 182-183) (Of equal interest and strikingly similar in language used is the comment of Lionel Rothschild on the subject of banking as quoted by Lord Beaconsfield (Benjamin D'Israeli) in 1844: "Can anything be more absurd than that a nation should apply to an individual to maintain its credit, and with its credit, its existence as a state and its comfort as a people?") When Lenin had seized power, it was a small matter to set up printing presses in the major cities of Russia that commenced to pour off paper roubles by the billion. Some fourteen or fifteen thousand workers were busily engaged in the government printing shops of Moscow, Leningrad, Penza,Perm, and Rostov-on-Don, turning out tons upon tons of paper money. At the same time, safety deposit boxes were seized, all accounts were frozen and the banks were closed so that there was no addition to the circulation existing outside; and no new money came on the scene other than the paper roubles of the Bolshevik printing presses which immediately took the place of that Ledger Credit Page Money by manipulation of which the banks had previously controlled a great deal of trade.
Page 125 For a year or two, the Monarchist roubles were printed as if there were intention to keep the people half expecting that the Czar would be coming back. Then for a short while, "Kerenski" rouble was printed, presumably the issue of the short-lived Kerensky government, and then finally, the Bolshevik rouble which let the people know that all was indeed lost. This continuing the money of a destroyed king seems to have been no new policy of international money power, especially in the case of those kings, its particular enemies. An illustration of which from ancient times was the continued minting at the Sardis mint of the "sigloi" of Croesus long after he had been destroyed. The printing press money of the Russian Revolution entered the circulation against government expenditures and against gold coin which it became illegal to possess. These vigorous moves may have been cause for some misgivings amongst the bankers who continued to finance the "Revolution." But so closely surrounded was Lenin by their agents, they would have been justified in reasoning that they would come out on top again without too much trouble, and they did. In the archives of the State Publishers of Moscow is recorded the following eulogy to the printing press as being as great a force in the so-called revolution as armies: "Paper money of the Soviet Republic gave support to the young regime at the most critical period of its existence when there was no possibility of raising direct taxes to meet the outlays of the civil war. Hail to our printing presses! It is true that its days are numbered but it has already completed three quarters of its work. In the archives of the proletarian revolution along with the cannon, rifles, machine guns or our epoch that vanquished the enemies of the proletariat, the place of honor will be given to the printing press, the machine gun of the commissariat of finance that poured fire into the rear of the bourgeois system and that made use of the laws of currency and circulation of that regime for the purpose of destroying it, and financing the revolution.
Page 126 Typical enough the "Tyrant" himself, Vladimir Lenin, saw little or no profit out of all this, for himself, the Russian people, or that ideal of world revolution in which it appears he sincerely believed. If truly he was the author of the above statements regarding banking, then, when he died not so long after all these events, it was as a weary and disillusioned man. For that gold, still very much the base for total control of world finance, which was wrung from the Russian people during the period of terror between 1917 and 1922, seems to have almost all found its way to the "Benefactors" of the original revolutionaries, Messrs. Kuhn, Loeb and Company in New York and it must have been clear to Lenin by the time he died that he was but an agent of a force that regarded him as merely another tool to be used towards the making of that which they designed. "Mr. Bakhmetiev, the late Russian Imperial Ambassador to the US, tells us that the Bolsheviks, after victory, transferred 600 million roubles in gold between the years 1918 and 1922 to Kuhn Loeb which makes a pretty good return for the mere 20 million dollars granted by the philanthropic Mr. Schiff and which would have been used as credits against purchases at that! At that time, such an amount of gold could have been used to form the apex of an inverted pyramid of abstract money equal in amount to beyond thirty times the number of units such gold represented in US currency according to its official price.
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