THE BABYLONIAN WOE Preface Analysis by John C. Turmel, B. Eng. (Banking Systems Engineering)
- More complete text has been previously posted and only minimal text with indented Commentary and preceded by JCT: is offered here - Prerequisite http://turmelpress.com/info.htm * Turmel analysis has indented paragraphs, Astle's text does not. * R&R = Rothschilds and Rockefellers
(Inside Front cover) A study of the Origin of Certain Banking Practices and of their effect on the events of Ancient History written in the light of the Present Day. David Astle JCT: The true importance of this book is in detailing how a small secret group of bankers operated a fractional reserve banking system many thousands of years ago and how the use of such system could enslave the whole world in unpayable debt as it does today.
In this scholarly work, David Astle has presented to the world a history of the effects of monetary mechanics in very ancient times, with emphasis on Ethno-psychology. It illustrates how, even in the earliest times of which written record remains, the days of Babylonia or before, a so-called monetary science undoubtedly existed; being then, as in today, never more than as instrument by which its secret and cynical controllers wittingly influenced the destinies of individuals, nations, and empires as to (temporary) glory or final disaster. JCT: And the amazing part is that today's high-technology mankind remains as duped as was the low-technology mankind of yesteryear.
I strongly recommend this important and well-documented work as a most useful reference book; complementing any study of Economic or Monetary history. It will be a great asset to learned societies, top management, and self-teaching individuals in all parts of the world. JCT: It is also quite unique in that it is the only Monetary textbook which refers to interest-free banking systems. Though we have today thousands of examples of interest-free LETS (Local Employment- Trading System) and Timedollar or Hour currencies, this information has been completely erased from all Economics curricula in general. This does not seem to have been an accidental omission.
The bibliography is a MUST for any who seek to understand the significance of monetary creation and emission in relation to human destiny and ultimate fate. JCT: With over 130 books in reference, it truly is an astounding investigative work on a topic which has had virtually every reference to it erased from our memories.
(Page ii) "The intellectual faculties however are not of themselves sufficient to produce external action; they require the aid of physical force, THE DIRECTION AND COMBINATION OF WHICH ARE WHOLLY AT THE DISPOSAL OF MONEY, THAT MIGHTY SPRING BY WHICH THE TOTAL FORCE OF HUMAN ENERGIES IS SET IN MOTION." Augustus Boeckh; translated; The Public Economy of Athens, p7; Book I, London, 1828 JCT: It is true that rarely is anything accomplished in today's world unless the financing has been arranged. To those with the power to approve or disapprove the financing is a power which Astle argues should be in the hands of the rulers, not private bankers.
(Page v) Alas! Our Gods are gone forever! So Who then shall fight the Babylonian Woe. JCT: Interestingly enough, the computer revolution will fight the Babylonian Woe.
Page vii "For money has been the ruin of many and has misled the minds of Kings." Ecclesiasticus 8, verse 2. JCT: The Bible contains many statements of great understanding of monetary mechanics and will be often be referred by Astle and by myself.
When I originally approached my study as best I might, dealing with the growth in pre-antiquity and antiquity of what is known as the International Money Power, and the particular derivative of the money creative activities of such International Money Power that might be defined as the Life Alternative Factor, I did so with some diffidence. JCT: When I originally approached my study of money, I already had an understanding of casino banking whose poker chips are a perfect interest-free currency model to which I will refer on a constant basis. Anyone who has difficulty in understanding how interest-free banking works need only obtain a bank of poker chips and contemplate how they work.
In almost all of such books of reference, except those that classified themselves as economic or monetary histories, was practically no clear approach to the subject of money and finance, or to those exchange systems that must have existed in order that the so-called civilizations might come to be. In the odd case where the translations of the texts might reveal some key clue, no more special emphasis was placed herein than might have been placed on the mention of a gold cup, a ring, a seal, or some exquisite piece of stone work. JCT: The situation is just as if future historians, upon studying today's economy, found that there were no "economics" textbooks explaining how banking worked. Considering how many such textbooks there are, they would also find it quite mystifying. They might also conclude, once the nature of the control on human activities inherent in the banking system is understood, that such omission is not accidental but has a wholly malevolent purpose.
Thus in almost all of the works of the great archaeologists and scholars specializing in the ancient civilizations, there is a virtual silence on that all important matter, the system of distribution of food surpluses, and surpluses of all those items needed towards the maintenance of a good and continuing life so far as were required by climate and customs. JCT: This law of surpluses must be emphasized in that it is with respect to "abundance" that Christ defines both the usury banking system and the Christian usury-free LETS banking system. LETS: "Your abundance should at the present be a supply for their want so that later, their abundance may be a supply for your want and in that way, he who gathers much doesn't have too much and he who gathers little doesn't have too little." Usury: "To him who has abundance will more be given and from him who has no abundance, even what he has will be taken away" and in that way, he who gathers much gets even more and he who gathers little has it taken away until he starves to death. As is done today. That Astle has also identified the banking system in relation to the allocation of surpluses as Christ identified it in relation to the allocation of abundance is an indication that they were both on the right track.
In all these writings of these great and practical scholars, the workings of that mighty engine which injects the unit of exchange amongst the peoples, and without which no civilization as we know it can come to be, is only indicated by a profound silence. JCT: It is true that no civilization can arise without a medium of exchange to facilitate the specialization of labor. Without a money, everyone has to do everything for themselves and the increment of association by specialization cannot be earned.
Of the systems of exchanges, of the unit of exchange and its issue by private individuals, as distinct from its issue as by the authority of sovereign rule, on this all important matter governing in such totality the conditions of progression into the future of these peoples, not a word to speak of... JCT: Imagine, absolutely nothing on the controlling system of human activity for it is through money that all human endeavor is guided. Because bankers allocate new credit to war industries instead of productive industries is the main reason mankind has spent so much time at war rather that at production. Man works for a paycheck and if the only industries a banker will allocate credit to is a war industry and not a productive one, then it can truly be said that bankers steered those paychecks to warriors rather than producers. Bankers and their control and allocation of credit can be held responsible for the state of the world as it is and as it has always been which is the prime reason Christ attacked the money-lenders in the temple and Mohammed pledged war against the bankers from God and his prophet.
While it is true that the average archaeologist, in being primarily concerned with the results of the forces that gave rise to the human accretions known as civilizations, has little enough time to meditate on these forces themselves, especially since so little evidence exists of what created them, or of how they provided guidance to men in earlier days, the widespread character of these omission borders on the mystifying. JCT: It's not so mystifying once one understands how the control of the allocation of credit controls all the endeavors of mankind. It you were a banker, would you really want the world to realize that it was your decision to refuse to fund food production with new money during the Great Depression as it was your decision to fund arms production with new money during World War Two? Once it is understood how the control of allocation of credit rules mankind's endeavor, then the blame for the direction of such endeavor can be laid at the doorstep of those controllers and the hundreds of millions of deaths from their decisions are a natural consequence of such understanding.
Virtual failure to speculate on those most important matters of all; the structure of the machinery of the systems of exchanges which undoubtedly had given rise to the ancient city civilizations, and the true nature of the energy source by which such machinery was driven, whether by injections of money as known this last three thousand years or so, or by injections of an exchange media of which little significant evidence or memory remains, is cause for concern. JCT: It is quite amazing to think that the mechanics of a control system that has been in operation for thousands of years can be so misunderstood today. I often sit back and marvel that our high- technology world can still be caught up in the throes of an enslavement trick developed thousands of years in the past. It's almost surreal how today's politicians can inflict death by poverty on their populations without realizing the insanity of it all.
The truth of the lines as quoted herein from Boeckh's "Public Economy of Athens" (page ii) is immediately clear to all and that the physical force underlying all civilizations must have been the system whereby surpluses were allocated to the people according to their place in the pyramid of life and to their needs; thus, when being controlled by the benevolent law of a dedicated ruler, maintaining at all times the true and natural order of life. JCT: It should also be just as clear that Christ's two laws dealing with abundance relate to maintaining the true and natural order of life versus the unnatural order of death inherent in the mort-gage death-gamble usury banking system.
It must not be supposed,therefore, that there is a lack of understanding of the importance of these matters; nor that there is any special conspiracy of silence, even though there might indeed be the temptation to arrive at such a conclusion. (According to "Tragedy and Hope," the important and compendious work of Dr. Carroll Quigley, an outstanding scholar of liberal outlook, (as interpreted by the reviewer, W. Cleon Skousen), such conspiracy certainly exists, and is vast in scope to say the least.) JCT: I can't believe that the omission of all historical examples of interest-free banking such as the Roman Aes Grave copper currency, the English Tally wooden currency, the North American Indian Wampum bead currency, Colonial "Continental" and Lincoln's "Greenback" paper currencies has been accidental. Not only is the omission a great indictment but the misrepresentation of the latter two systems is indeed a great temptation to arrive at the conclusion that a special conspiracy of not only silence but also misrepresentation exists.
Rather it were better to accept things as they appear, and assume that these scholars merely present the fragments of fact as they unearth them; leaving speculation of the true significance of such fragments of fact in relation to the weft and warp of life, to those considered to be particularly specialized in various fields represented. In the case of money and finance, the scholars concerned would be classified as economic or monetary historians. JCT: Perhaps these scholars do have such an excuse but the fact that even the Bible has been altered to dilute its anti-interest messages is an even greater indictment of a conscious conspiracy to enslave humankind with exponential debt.
Thus little enough seems to be available on the subject of money and finance in ancient days. Nor seems to exist examination of the significance of such money and finance relative to the progress about which so much has been written in modern times. JCT: And even Economics textbooks of modern times which examine the significance of money and finance relative to progress have their facts wrong, though considering discussions on sci.econ, there is a good chance such authors can be counted among those fooled rather than among those doing the fooling.
Apart from Alexander Del Mar who wrote in relatively recent days, and apart from that of the philosophers of antiquity such as Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Zeno, etc, almost no speculation seems to be available from scholarly sources in regards to the unprejudiced PHILOSOPHY of money, in ancient times. JCT: With almost no correct speculation in regards to the unprejudiced philosophy of money in recent times.
On the all important subject of the consequences of the creation and issuance of money by private persons as opposed to its creation and issuance according to the will of a benevolent, instructed and dedicated ruler, almost no speculation seems to exist in ancient or in modern times. JCT: The fact that Wampum and LETSystems allow for the creation of money by private persons as opposed to the issuance by governments has proven not to be a problem. The actual problem is when a restricted number of private persons are given a monopoly on such creation and who may then loanshark the funds back to the government which has licensed them them to create and issue such money at interest do the real problems arise.
Of those forces that sought throughout history to undermine any ruler who may have been firmly in the saddle because of his exercise of that prerogative which is the foundation of the State Power or God-Will of which has is the living evincement, insomuch as he maintained firm control of the original issuance of money and its injection into circulation amongst the people as against State expenditures, almost nothing seems to be known. JCT: Yet, information is still around about King Henry I's Tally system though no attempt has been made to explain how it functioned to provide a comfortable standard of living for the early English who needed only spend half their year securing their livelihood with the other half devoted to holidays, festivals and constructing palaces and cathedrals.
Very little information is available of the means those forces employed towards this purpose through injection into circulation amongst the peoples of silver and gold, and of instruments indicating possession of the same. Practically no information seems to exist of the growth of private money creation in the days of ancient city states of Mesopotamia, of which, because of their records being preserved on fire-baked clay, more is known than of more more recent civilizations; and the gap must necessarily be filled by a certain amount of speculation. JCT: Just as very little is known of the true nature of those forces which inject money into circulation today. I had a recent debate titled "The Essence of Money" where economists argued that they could create new money with a piggy bank which, when considered more fully without a source or sink, is quite silly. And yet, Economics professors admitted that they taught their students that money was created with a piggy bank model of the banking system. It was only after major debate that one finally admitted that money was actually created with a LETS casino-style creationary bank with both a source and a sink. Though I'd bet that lesson has already been forgotten by most since a man convinced against his will is a man unconvinced still.
Such flood off silver injected into circulation largely by private business houses who no doubt controlled the mines, however distant, especially after the institution of coinage in which a piece of silver of known weight and fineness passed from hand to hand, must finally and forever have broken that control of exchanges previously exercised by the god of the city through priest king and priest. JCT: This is another relation which necessarily explains how the international could have instigated world wars with the deaths of millions for profit. They descend from the same moneylending fraternity who worked their slaves to death on galleys and in mines and there's no reason to believe that their utter lack of respect for human life should have changed in recent centuries though the hundreds of millions killed by war and poverty in just this recent twentieth century has certainly added to the indictment of their activities in an exponential fashion.
Thus all, priest-kings and priests, came to forget that the foundations of the power given to them from on High towards the maintenance of the right living and tranquil procession through life of their peoples, were the laws of distribution of surpluses as written on the scribes tablet; laws instituted by the god himself, each ordering a specified dispensation from the surpluses in his warehouses in the Ziggurat, to the holder of the tablet. JCT: It must be noted that when the Ziggurat operated like a casino cashier in accepting surpluses in exchange for tokens worth the collateral pledged that things worked fine.
They too fell into the error of believing that silver with value created as a result of its being used as a balancing factor in international exchange, could become a perpetual storehouse of value... They themselves became consumed in the scramble for this gleaming metal, so conceding it, through its controllers the power to set itself up in opposition to the law of the gods; to raise itself up in its own right, a god in itself. JCT: How they could be tricked into accepting silver and gold as the basis for their chips and forgetting how clay chips worked is one of the truly amazing scams of history.
In its exercise, the fiat of the internationally minded group of merchants and bullion brokers that arbitrarily dictated the exchange value of such silver, being in actuality determination internationally of the value of money, place such groups controlling silver exchanges above and beyond local laws of the local god, and indeed conferred on them the power to influence kingly appointment. It made of them the servants of one god, a god above all gods; thereby somewhat relegating the god whose order on the state warehouses as inscribed on clay by the scribe or priest, had been the law governing exchanges, to the place of their servant, their instrument... JCT: It would be just the same as if Ceasar's Palace or the Taj Mahal casinos could be tricked into using bullion for their chips so that those who controlled the bullion supply could control how many chips were available for use in those casinos and thus control the volume of economic activity. It would have to be a pretty stupid casino owner who could fall for such a trick though there seems to have no short supply of kings and government officials.
It is true that while no single feature in the progression of history might be regarded as basic and decisive, it is certain that the money accumulation mania injected by fame into the minds of people as a replacement to their concern with those natural qualities endeavoring to color the current of human life through time, amongst which are numbered virtue, honour, and godliness, destroys equally as another debilitating disease, and will surely and speedily drag any people down to a degeneracy and decay. A great army could not be more efficient in its power of destruction. JCT: All we have to do is look around us today and contemplate how much violence and crime can be attributed to those infamous words "I did it for the money" to understand how a great army could not be more efficient in its destruction of civilization than a money kept in short supply.
The main discussion of the "Artha-Sastra" of Kautilya, Hindu classic instructing kings and rulers as to their proper conduct towards good government, was as to whether financial or military organization came first of all as the root of strength and power in any any organized state. (Sarvepalli Radhaakrishnan and Charles Moore: "A Source Book in Indian Philosophy" p219-220. Princeton; 1957) Clearly in that day no less than this day, financial organization preceded military organization; therefore, there is not much point really in discussion of so obvious a fact and truth. JCT: And he who controls the purse controls the king.
Much of history as we know it is the record of civilizations to counter and evade destruction of themselves from without or within, or is the record of their efforts to destroy other seemingly competing civilizations or peoples attacking them from without or within. War is as inevitable as is peace as the result of the exhaustion of war, and there are few peoples that escape; but wars of the last three thousand years have not been relatively infrequent occurrences and have been an incessantly recurring evil. It is no chance that the growth of warfare into a very cancer eating into the vitals of mankind, and more particularly the white races, is parallel to the growth of that other cancer which is private, and therefore, irresponsible, money creation and emission... JCT: Again, I don't mind private money creation and emission as demonstrated by LETS and Wampum currency systems. It's a "Monopoly of Credit" in the hands of irresponsible persons which is the problem, accentuated by usury on the credit.
It seems that almost none of the scholars make any serious effort to throw light on the real meaning of this matter of private monetary emission, and the disastrous effects that it has had, and in finality, will have, towards the defining of the remaining period of time of man upon this earth, as being brief and uncertain. Those strange decisions of kings signaling the opening of wars as frightful and disastrous to the European peoples, as the last two so- called "World Wars," decisions so abnegatory of self, but more than that, abnegatory of the best interests of the peoples they represented before God, far from being the directives of a benevolent force, are the directives of a force which cannot but be described in any way but as being wholly malevolent. JCT: I think that physical attack by Christ on the bankers in the temple may be an indication that he considered as wholly malevolent as David Astle does since they were financing wars then as they still do today.
The great engine which is the international control of monetary emission and regulation, driven as it was until recently by the catalytic fuel of gold alone, is not almost world embracing in the scope of its operations. It seems there is no change in the attitude of those its guides, nor any admission of the folly of their misuse of this God-power which they direct towards the good of themselves and their friends. Their obsession, despite ruin for all looming on every horizon, seems to remain the same narrow vision of the day of their own world supremacy wherein they will rule as absolute lords over all; although by now it should be apparent to them, no less than to all thinking people, that if this madness concealed within the much talked about conception known as progress is not brought to a complete arrestment, nothing remains but an end wherein shall be silence and no song, for indeed there will be no singer, nor any to sing to... As it looks today, it may be the end of the Indo-European peoples whose diligent labours made so much of this world of today... It may be the end, final and absolute for all men for that matter... it may be the end for this our Earth, our only place and home and hope in the awful endlessness of space and time. JCT: Yes, with ecological catastrophe looming, with extinction of species all around us, mankind seems hell-bent on a destruction it seems cannot be averted. Yet, I know that all it takes is a simple upgrading of the world banking system software to LETS to divert all of mankind's efforts from useless destruction to useful construction and hopefully sufficient to save the day. True, there may already be so many chemicals in the atmosphere that the ozone layer will still end up destroyed or toxic and nuclear wastes are already too widespread for us to survive but like the good bridge player who plans his play around a successful finesse of the King in front of his Ace- Queen, if the King is off-side and behind the tenace, then there was nothing that could be done anyway. So one must assume that it is on- side and plan the play accordingly. Similarly, one must assume that we are not past the point of no return and a reprogramming of the banks' central computers can divert sufficient manpower from destruction to production to save the day.
It should be more than apparent that in the relatively recent day when kingship and god-ship were one, so far as the simple souls were concerned, and the god and his viceroy on earth, the priest-king, were creators and controllers of the economic good, exchanges were created in order that the people might live a fuller life, and not so much to benefit any secret society or interlocked group standing aside from the main paths of mankind, but to benefit all who kneeled humbly before the Almighty, each fully in acceptance of himself as part of the god-wish, eternal and infinite; each one in his time an integral unit carefully placed in the pyramid of life itself. JCT: As they can once again be the creators and controllers of economic good if we can but take away the power of the banks to control currency emission to fund war and not production and return such control to our rulers to fund production and not war.
Kings largely became the mouthpiece and sword arm of those semi-secret societies that controlled the material of money as its outward and visible symbols came to be restricted to gold, silver, and copper. The fiat of the god in heaven which had been the decisive force behind that which brought about an equitable exchange, was replaced by the will of those classes controlling the undertones of civilization, leaders of the world of slave drivers, caravaneers, outcasts, and criminals generally, such as was to be discerned on the edges of the ancient city civilizations, and followed the trade routes between them... JCT: And of course, with governments still being the mouthpiece and sword arm of those same semi-secret banking societies today.
The instrument of this will was precious metal, whose supply was controlled by the leaders of these classes through their control of the slave trade, since mining was rarely profitable in the case of precious metals except with slave labour, even after the development of hardened iron tools and efficient methods of smelting. JCT: And is it no wonder that these banker slave-drivers still use the same techniques to control their slaves today. They are still quite successful at to keep us slaves poor, sick, and fighting among ourselves. How else to explain laws which permit usury to keep us poor, promote tobacco processed foods to keep us sick, promote alcohol and deter hemp to keep us fighting rather than jolly and content.
The power of these men, indifferent and alien to most cities as they were, relative to that power it was replacing, which as the will of the benevolent god of the city had been made absolute by sowing in the minds of men over the thousands of years the idea of such metals having a specially high value relative to other goods and services being offered for exchange; indeed that they were a veritable store house of value. JCT: And even though the metallic base for money has now been eliminated, they still manage to keep people convince that just as there was never enough gold and silver to go around, there is a similar shortage of computer blips to go around.
The law of the ruler previously exercised towards the well being of the people in that they might live a good and honourable life accordingly became corrupted. It became merely a symbol raised before their gaze in order that they might not look down and see the evil gnawing away at the roots of the Tree of Life itself, destroying all peace and goodness. Nor could those semi-secret groups of persons be seen who so often were the sources of such evil. In their contemptuous indifference to the men of the states who found meaningfulness and tranquillity through life lived in natural order under the law of the King, they constituted hidden force deeply inimical to the best interests of mankind. JCT: And exactly the same thing still applies today. The same banking fraternity rule our high-tech world as the ruled ancient low-tech world though the chances of reform which were non-existent then are now as great as simply switching the programs on their central computers. Never in the history of mankind has there been such potential for the throwing off of our debt chains, a last opportunity mankind should grasp at as a drowning man would grasp at any straw.
Through stealthy issue of precious metal commodity money into circulation amongst the peoples, replacing that money which represented the fiat or will of the god of the city and which was merely an order on the state warehouses through his scribes, this internationally minded group, from the secrecy of their chambers, were able to make a mockery of the faith and belief of simple people. The line of communication from god to man through priest-king and priest was cut, being replaced by their own twisted purposes such as they were; not however guiding mankind into heaven that could have been and where all would be life, and light, and hope, but into such hell as to escape from which men might gladly come to accept the idea of Mass Suicide. JCT: And a Hell for which they will be held accountable if not punished after the day of Amnesty, Anonymity and financial Security that is on the horizon.
CHAPTER I: IN THE BEGINNING WAS THE WORD
Page 1 Every conclusion in respect to money and its creators in the world of the Ancient Civilizations indicates the existence of a far reaching conspiracy in respect to monetary issuance influencing the progression of man's history. It was parent to that acknowledged and most obvious conspiracy such as exists today. (According to the review of Tragedy and Hope, Dr. Carroll Quigley; New York 1966, as contained in the Naked Capitalist published by Leon Skousen, Salt Lake City 1970) The whole notion of the institution of precious metals by weight as the common denominator of exchanges cannot but have been disseminated by a conspiratorial organization fully aware of the extent of the power to which it would accede, could it but maintain control over bullion supplies and the mining which brought them into being in the first place. As far back as Neolithic times, values (and by inference money) were already expressed in terms of silver by weight at the time of the Azug-Bau Dynasty at Kish in Mesopotamia (3268-2897 B.C.) JCT: What's interesting is that people can readily admit that some deranged German painter sitting in his attic can dream of world conquest but absolutely refuse to even consider that men with the financial machinery at their disposal might be considering or even doing the same thing. Those who believe that bankers use the money system for their benefit to the detriment of everyone else are often disdainfully called "conspiracy theorists" while I would call those who do not hold such views as "accidentalist theorists" for their belief that the world is in its present deplorable condition accidentally. I think that these studies of David Astle's and Carroll Quigley's works, from the points of view of both banking conspiracy critic and banking conspiracy enthusiast, will lead us to only one conclusion, that manipulation of the money system permits levers of control over all economic activity and that such levers have been consciously manipulated by rich men for their own benefit and the detriment of all others.
Page 2 That sales are recorded in the 4th Millennium B.C. means that even at that time, there was a clear conception of the significance of that abstract monetary unit for sales were in terms of money. The true meaning of such a concept being largely incomprehensible to most even as in this day, except they were the truly initiated, those controlling the internal exchanges, namely the priesthood and scribes, might well be excused if they early fell into the error of expressing values in terms of the standard of values in international trade. This serious error brought about finally not only the collapse of that power through whose medium the god kings were best able to serve their peoples, but also the collapse and fading of the meaning and benevolent purpose of the god kings themselves. JCT: Of course, their own national exchanges worked best when their currency units were based on a measure of time at labor or a measure of barley or even a cow. Astle does allow that falling into the error of using gold and silver was a natural one and people can be no more condemned for failing to understand the nature of money in those days as they fail understand it today. It might be equivalent to LETSystem members starting to use another systems gold tokens without realizing that giving up the use of their own tokens puts them at the mercy of the issuers of gold tokens.
With silver bullion controlled by an international and conspiratorial minded group, as indeed it is obvious it must have been, considering the main sources of silver supply as being far away from those centers of civilization whose money depended on it, and yet with people coming to equate money, in actuality the law of the rules, then it becomes quite clear that scarcity or plenty in money depended on the manipulations internationally of that group controlling the distribution of precious metal bullion, and the plenty or scarcity they created, as was convenient to them. If there was no silver, why then, there was no money and prices fell. Substitute gold for silver, and history seeming to fast repeat itself, we have the condition of the European world of the last 2000 years. If there was no gold, why then again, there was no money. JCT: How true. The same control gold bullion brokers exercised millennia ago was also exercised in recent centuries too even though we have just lately ended our link to metallic base tokens.
Page 3 Hence was able to develop that conspiracy against mankind most exemplified by a continuous propaganda of hate against all authority. As those controlling totally the economic life of a state through monetary creation and emission must have felt that kings and gods were more of a nuisance than anything else, the instigators of this conspiracy in whatever place and era, obviously were those who first did the business of bankers; the controllers of values, and consequently the economic life of the states wherever the precious metal standard was used. JCT: I'm sure kings were as useful as fronts to take the heat from oppressed debtors in olden days as governments are today. In Quigley's book, we see over and over how governments promote policies which benefit the rich to the detriment of the poor and end up fighting their strikes and the revolutions when the poor can't take the starvation as quietly as the bankers would like them to.
According to Sir Charles Wooley, the excavator of Ur, the unit of exchange in the 4th Millennium was the measure of barley. Salaries of government officials of Hammurabai, King of Babylon, were assessed in barley but paid in silver. The notion of the numerous officials of Babylon waiting in line to have silver cut off from the bullion bar, although offered with sincerity, patently is as erroneous as that conception of the every day use in the exchanges of the "aes rude" in a similar way in which classical scholars and numismatists would have us believe; and which implied that the foreman and his laborers in ancient Rome also waited in line to have a fragment of copper weighed out in order that their wives might be able to go to the market to purchase the evening meal.
Page 4 Clearly the word silver in the texts means no more than the word "Plata" in modern Spanish, or "Argent" in modern day French. These words literally translate as silver, but as money, they may be anything from a grimy tattered paper note, to a silver peso, to the brass coin. Similarly, the word from the texts denoting silver may be safely said to have meant that which passed for money, be it clay or wood or class or leather or papyrus or stone. JCT: It's true. In French, the word for money is "argent," which is "silver." And even though none of us actually is paid in argent, future historians reading about us being paid in "argent" might come to the false conclusion that we were paid in actual silver, like we might come to false conclusion that they were paid in ancient days with actual silver. No matter that payment in actual silver was a real possibility.
(In his book "La monnaie dans l'antiquite" Francois Lenormant commented "We have proof of the use of glass money in Egypt from the beginning of the time of the High Empire.") Thus once money had come to be more of an abstract unit of account based for its value in desirable goods and services, on the barter power of a certain weight of silver bullion related to the constant value of barley, it was no major advance for those who benefited most from this conception, namely the bullion brokers, money changers and bankers, to find a weak king and a corruptible priesthood who could be brought to lose sight of the total control of the city which was the right of the god they served and who might turn a blind eye to those other more sinister activities by which the power of the Ziggurat was further undermined. JCT: When he keeps talking about a corruptible priesthood, our modern day equivalent has to be Economics faculties, the only difference being that they weren't corrupted as more brainwashed. Most economists sincerely believe the false engineering analysis they have been taught as my debates which Prof. Flaherty show quite conclusively. No one can attribute his ever present contradictions to anything other than irrationality, not corruption.
In the Age of Gods, Dawson remarks: "The temple was the bank of the community through which money could be lent at interest and advances made to the farmer on the security of his crop. Thus there grew up in Mesopotamia a regular money economy based on precious metals as standards of exchange." JCT: So they had modern day banking thousands of years ago.
Page 5 This information from Dawson is most illuminating; but of the undertones, he seems to see little, or he just does not choose to speculate as to their nature. Principal amongst those undertones, and quite possibly the force that brought these changes about, may safely presumed to be the secret and private expansion of the total money supply effected primarily by the issuance into circulation of false receipts for silver and other valuables supposedly held on deposit. JCT: This is the standard story of the goldsmith which even Dr. Quigley cites to explain the rise of fractional reserve banking. I won't go into it here since we will go into it later though I'd expect most people to already know this story.
Such receipts would be accepted by merchants instead of the actual metal, and would function as money, and would be an addition to the total money supply, though not understood as such by the rulers who would thus easily be inveigled into lending their sanction to seemingly harmless practices; or at least into turning a blind eye; especially if priesthood and scribes so advised. According to Wooley, trade seemed to extend from the city of Ur over the whole known world as far afield as Europe, being carried on by means of letters of credit, bills of exchange, and "promises to pay" (cheques), made out in terms of staple necessities expressed in terms of silver at valuation of barley. (On page 124 of his book Abraham (London 1936), Wooley comments: "A trade which involved the greater part of the then known world was carried on with remarkable smoothness by means of what we should call a paper currency based on commodity values.) JCT: You will find many historians who claim that modern day banking was invented centuries ago by merchants in Venice or by the Bank of England when it seems pretty clear that it was invented millennia ago.
Page 6 The merchant loaned money to his customers, such money merely being an abstraction indicated by the figures on the clay tablet; in earlier days being backed by the will-force of the god of the city, and in latter days by the promises of silver. Thus, the caravaneer or traveling merchant gave credit. Whether his own or that of the merchant for whom he was agent or directly from the Ziggurat itself, it functioned as a form of foreign aid similar to foreign aid today. Considering that the merchant operated solely with the credit of the temple that raised him up, while the temple remained supreme, such foreign aid was instrument of state policy, maintaining the servility of lesser states while maintaining the steady working capacity of the home manufacturies, and a contented people in consequence. JCT: So the manipulation of credits were also similar in those days.
Page 7 With the growth of silver in circulation, that which had been total economic control from the gods through his servants in the Ziggurat was bypassed and merchants were now able to deal privately using their own credit or powers of abstract money creation. They were able through the control of distant mining operations to afflict a previously dedicated priesthood with thought of personal possession; and through the control of the manufacture of weapons in distant places, they were able to arm warlike peoples towards the destruction of whosoever they might choose. JCT: This is an important point. Just as the Rothschild brother in London financed English war expenses, and the Rothschild brother in Paris financed the French war expenses, and the Rothschild brother in Frankfurt financed the German war expenses, and the Rothschild brother in Italy financed their war expenses, all the in the name of national support, the point is that they always financed both sides of most wars and stood to profit no matter who won. So it makes sense that fomenting wars was very profitable and the idea of preventing war and their expenses was quite unlikely. Of the two families, the Rothschilds are responsible for far many more hundreds of dead millions than the Rockefellers though the Rothschilds have certainly collaborated in the genocide of the millions the Rockefellers are responsible for.
Those merchants who were the main sources of precious metals came to realize that they could actually create that which functioned as money with but the record incised by the stylus on the clay tablet promising metal or money. Obviously, as a result of this discovery which depended on the confidence they were able to create in the minds of the peoples of their integrity, provided they banded themselves together with an absolute secrecy that excluded all other than their proven and chosen brethren, they could replace the god of the city as the giver of all. JCT: Neat, eh? People actually would pay same interest to borrow paper promises of gold as they would to borrow the actual gold. What a wonderful scam if it weren't for all the victimized corpses at the end of the habitual famines.
Page 8 Some evidence of the knowledge and previous existence of such practice of issuance of false receipts as against supposed valuables on deposit for safe-keeping clearly exists in the Law No. 7 of the great Hammurabai Code. According to Professor Bright, the Code of Hammurabai was but a revision of two legal codes promulgated in Sumerian by Lipit-Ishtar of Isin, and in Akkadian by the King of Eshnummua in 1950 B.C. The severity of the penalty and the placing of this law so high in the code leave little doubt that it was directed against an evil that was by no means new, and, who knows, may have been one of the deep seated causes of the invasions that devastated Ur from the Gutim, the Elamites, the Amorites, and the Hittites; for no doubt of old, just as today, Money Power was as busy arming the enemies of the people amongst whom it sojourned, as that people themselves. While scholars do not appear to have paid any special attention to this particular law, or to have attached any special significance, its true intent and purpose is clear to anyone conversant with the origins of private money issuance in modern times, as indicated by the familiar story of the goldsmith's multiple receipts. JCT: Of course, scholars may have spent some attention to this information but, just like the erasure of inconvenient facts in George Orwell's 1984, most of it has probably been erased from our history books. That such deletions are not accidental can be perceived by the virtually complete omission of any reference to interest-free banking systems from all Economics curricula. Though interest-free systems were used by Sparta, Rome, England, early American indians and Lincoln, there is a total void in all economic histories which I do not find mystifying. If you're going to enslave a whole world with exponential debt, the last thing you want to do is have them learn about history's successful interest-free systems. It's the reason I promoted LETS Local Employment-Trading System currencies as local models for our perusal. That some people have concluded that they must remain local in order to work though there is no theoretical limit to the number of accounts in the database, is one of the saddest results of having promoted smaller models.
Page 9 "If a man buys silver or gold or slave or ox or sheep or anything else from a free man or has received them for safe custody without witness or contract, that man is a thief; he shall be put to death." The requisite witnesses and contract attesting to the true facts of valuables on deposit would to some extent obviate the danger of the goldsmiths creating receipts for valuables that did not exist. Provided a corrupted priesthood turned a blind eye to this practice and loaned their sanction thereto, such fraudulent money or, in the misleading euphemism of a corrupted world, "credit", would be equally effective in foreign markets as in the home markets. The severity of the penalty would have been an absolute deterrent to such practice that since that time, and more especially in modern times since the 16th Century A.D., has become so indurated to a fixture. JCT: So they really frowned on fractional reserve banking, the lending out of gold they didn't have. Actually, there's nothing wrong with lending out gold you don't have as long as you don't charge interest for it. Every LETSystem creates new money or new gold every time someone overdraws their account with no ill effects. Of course, making people believe they were borrowing gold was the rational for the charging of interest but without such interest, LETS does show that there are no ill effects which would necessitate such laws.
Page 10 At the time of the promulgation of the Law of Hammurabai, both private property and private issued money seem to have been well established. It is to be assumed that ignorant of noble caste or otherwise were already deferring to that magic known as money in much the same manner as they did at all times through latter history when faced with the necessity of compromise with private money creative power whose activities had been permitted by foolish kings and to whom such kings had even committed the finances of the realm such as during the last four hundred years in England. JCT: And of course, we'll see how the Bank of England crucified the English on a cross of gold in Quigley's texts. It's quite safe to say that the current string of British rulers are the same fools who have committed their nation's finances to private money creative power. I think it's fair to say that the debasement of their reigns correlates quite closely with the debasement of their currencies. Why not lose respect for the monarch just as we lose respect for the coin with her picture on it? Sure she might be a nice lady but she's still an incompetent ruler as the debasement of her currency would show.
In the time of Hammurabai, merchandising was by no means regarded as an end in itself, and a means whereby it was the right of ignoble men to proffer any corruption to the people so long as it made "profit" for them, and "interest" for the so-called bankers who supplied the original "finances" out of his secret and costless money- creative processes. JCT: I guess David Astle finds the fact that bankers can create costless credit out of thin air and lend it out at interest is as amazing a scam I find it. Of course, it's not the fault of the intellectually slow or uneducated to have been fooled but what's the excuse going to be for the intellectually quick or educated portion of the population?
Money lending still had not come to be a means whereby man-hating and therefore corrupt secret societies might seek to overturn the tree of life itself by way of sowing the seeds of decay in that true and natural order of life which had been ordained from time immemorial. Private money creators had at that time by no means arrived at that point where they might conspire to present complete defiance to the gods and their appointed and install jackasses in the places of the mighty, as too often was the case in the latter days. JCT: But look at any of today's governments and you'll see that they're full of self-serving jackasses. Won't they look stupid once Global LETS has been installed and their money madness finally exposed. My favorite government jackass is Mike Harris, a former golfer who made Ontario Prime Minister, who successfully cut life- support tickets to the poor until they homeless were dying right outside his office. Of course he has committed genocide by poverty of many Ontario citizens and yet there's not 1% of the population who see it as more than a necessary financial evil.
CHAPTER II: THE TEMPLE AND THE COUNTING HOUSE
Page 12 If the god of such secret society or confederacy controlled movements of silver bullion internationally, he might well be contemptuous of all city gods other than himself, for when money values were based on his silver in such international exchanges, then he and his acolytes knew that all prosperity in the kingdoms depended on him, and whether he ordained through his servants that silver should be plentiful or otherwise; whether indeed there would be no money and hardship, or plenty of money and prosperity. JCT: Wasn't it one of the Rothschilds who said "Let me control the creation of the money and I care not who makes its laws." Sounds like the same kind of contempt for rulers that, quite frankly, such subservient rulers, deserve. I know I feel a contempt for my Queen who has allowed her currency to be debased by these kinds of monsters. It's pretty tough not to when you understand how they control her.
In the latter days of declining temple power, prosperity would also depend on whether rulers turned a blind eye to that privately created ledger credit page entry money whose use the international money changers were undoubtedly promoting as facilitation to exchanges between select and secret groups of persons and so would strengthen themselves and their one-God all-powerful, all omnipotent... JCT: That's why all civilizations that rise up are eventually thrown down by these same bullion brokers once they kings have fallen for the metallic money trick. The fact they use the same money trick to rule in the same way today states volumes about the lack of understanding of rulers, then and now.
Page 13 The ruthless and stern edicts of such princes as Hammurabai of Babylon, while perhaps effective in Babylon, would not avail in all those cities to which the money changers undoubtedly carried their arts, especially if they were not subject to the rule of Babylon. Who knows to what extent the seizure of Ur by Hammurabai was the result of his determination to extirpate the source of this attack on kingly power. JCT: We'll find history is full of examples of rulers fighting the moneylenders and usually losing to them. That's why the odd win on the part of wise rulers is of such interest and also why the moneylenders who control the publishing houses try to erase every mention of such free money-systems as described by George Orwell in 1984. It's no accident that every mention of the many interest-free banking systems throughout history have been shoved down the memory hole so that no economist has ever even heard about them. And after their conditioning, they rebel at even the thought of zero interest.
That close to the throne were those who secretly held in contempt the god-king is clear from the following excerpt from Wooley in respect of his discovery of the tombs of the kings of the IIIrd dynasty at Ur: "The tomb had been robbed just as the earth was about to be put in; nobody would have dared when the pit was still in use, nor, if such sacrilege had been done, would the bricks have been left scattered on the floor and the breach unfilled. The robbers must have chosen their moment when the inviolable earth would at once hide all traces of the crime and they could afford to be careless." On the ramp leading down to the king's tomb would have lain the bodies of those who had elected to accompany their Lord into the regions beyond. It would have been almost impossible for such carefully timed robbery to have taken place over the bodies of those who would be amongst the first ladies of the court and certain officials without there having been a well planned conspiracy. JCT: So the moneylenders had no respect for the rulers then just as they have the same contempt for them today.
Page 14 When the robbery was effected, it is clear they were already dead, there had to be connivance of certain persons in high places to whom this great devotion was without meaning. Such gold and silver would have been useless and a dangerous possession except to those to whom it meant money and power internationally and by whom it could be melted and rapidly transformed abroad. JCT: Makes sense. Can you imagine some ordinary thief wandering around with the King's Royal Golden Scepter looking for a fence to take it off his hands? Not likely. Of course, guys with the know-how to melt it down and move it out of town or introduce it through their bank branches would have a great advantage.
The famous temple of Solomon was not only used as a treasury but, as in Babylonia, as a bank. The arts of banking were in no way as developed as they were in Babylonia and Assyria. Amongst the Apiru, undoubtedly confederates of the Israelites in later times, were clearly many refugees from the cruel debt slavery existing in Babylonia during the 2nd Millennium. Apart from the firm laws in respect to the taking of interest, the Jubilee of the 50th year (Leviticus 24.II), if fully enforced, would render any efforts to create monopoly ineffective. Thus it can be seen that the God in his holy shrine ruled in the same way in that ancient Hebrew kingdom. JCT: Religious laws probably had as much influence then as they do today. Most of old Torah law condemns interest but 99% of all Jews don't obey. Most of old Koran law condemns interest but 99% of all Muslims don't obey. Much of Christian law condemns interest but 99% of all Christians don't obey. So how much influence would religious law have in those days either.
Page 15 The Greek sanctuary owed existence to similar forces that had given rise to the temples of Mesopotamia and to the temple of Solomon. Functioning in like manner, clearly it originated from those distant days when the priesthood considered themselves as the direct representatives of the gods on earth, the shepherds appointed to the flock.
Page 16 The temple of each small city in Greece may have functioned as did the great temples of the powerful city states of earlier days, and money, that is the law controlling exchanges as to a common denominator of values, may have come into existence as entry in the temple ledger, although how represented in the circulation does not seem to be clearly known. The notion of exchanges being conducted in terms of cattle cannot be accepted as that which created an exchange amongst the common people of the city civilizations. It is clear that local tribes such as the Bushmen of South Africa have been conversant with the basic principles of money as pieces of certain shell, cut according as tradition demanded. JCT: But let's give credit to King Henry I of England who created the very first totally uncounterfeitable royal currency, tallies. Still, if a temple were running their local currency a la LETS, then there would have been little incentive to counterfeit by the citizenry though you can bet the international moneylenders wouldn't have been so constrained.
Page 17 It may reasonably be expected that the intelligent Indo-Europeans from whom stemmed the Greeks were equally conversant with such principles; even if later they came to forget them. JCT: Cute. "if later they came to forget them." I think it was more a case of having it erased from their books of knowledge just as it's been erased today. You have to marvel at the ability of the moneylenders to have erased every mention of interest-free money from all orthodox Economics textbooks. That's probably the greatest travesty of education ever inflicted on mankind.
According to the Cambridge Ancient History: "Ivory beads in countries now devoid of elephants suggest either wide range of movement or some form of exchange." The graves of Sungir reveal similar mammoth ivory beads proven to be 23,000 years old or more. During the old kingdom of Egypt when "numberings" of all accepted as wealth and possession were taken every two years, and therefore books kept, a most refined system of distribution of surpluses and therefore creation of exchanges must have existed. The connection between such system and the "scarabs" seems to have been generally dismissed. That scarabs have been found in their hundreds in places far removed from Egypt indicates significance far removed from their use as ornaments. JCT: So money may have been understood and used properly 23,000 years ago. I always marvel that our civilization with its amazing level of technical sophistication could still be tricked by an ages old scam whose irrational nature, the attempt to repay more than was originally printed, seems to elude most of its conditionees.
The agents of Babylonian Money Power would themselves have promoted establishment of the temple nucleus to the city state. It was the form of government they understood best and they knew how to control and subvert it if necessary. Just as the similar secret money creative force heads directly for the seat of government itself in this day and age, and once it becomes fully lodged and acknowledged, in the same way as with the establishment of the Bank of England in 1694 and the Federal Reserve Bank in 1913, two instances with which we are most familiar, it penetrates right into the heart of the treasury, so it was in that day. JCT: If you read about how the Rothschilds controlled governments a couple of hundred years ago, you'd see that nothing really changed.
Page 18 As amongst the original aristocracy of Greece would be little enough sympathy for the smooth subtleties of those newcomers originating from the countinghouses of the Phoenician, Aramean or Babylonian Cities, it would not be to the natural political leaders that these newcomers would address themselves in the first place, but to the priesthood, those who controlled the temple, the advisors and guides to such rulers. Just as in today, such priesthood is too often composed of men of little understanding of the realities of financial life and who lend themselves almost eagerly to any power with sufficient front to offer them more than the god they represent, so it was in that day. JCT: After running in a record number of elections, I've often asked out loud why my opponents are running when they don't have any solutions. It can only be for self-interest since it's not for the public's interest.
Thus the cities that rose out of the industrial awakening of Greece had all the appurtenances of the sacred city state of more ancient days. However, too often during the last three hundred years, kingship has become little more than a front giving legality to such money as circulates, bearing as it does, the profile of the ruler who so often has been unwitting co-conspirator, if only as essential instrument, with that money power, totally international in character, which has nowadays largely replaced kingly power as the true ruler, so it was that the temple became a front for the international money creative force of that day and age; connected closely with the trade in precious metals and slaves as it must have been. JCT: It's sad to say that most of the rulers of today are nothing but Judas goats leading their peoples to financial slaughter and debt slavery. I just hope God's got a fitting punishment for them when they get to the other side. I wonder what kind of punishment he's got for the Rothschilds and Rockefellers responsible for it all.
Page 19 Thus, as the distant heir to this temple of ancient days, the temple of the Greek city state in the 1st Millennium B.C. was still a place looked up to as the abode of the gods; even if that economic power by which, as the expression of the benevolent will of the god, it had controlled the total existence men, was now exercised by an external and indifferent force, alien to Greek and with whom it connived against its own adherents. The temple of Apollo at Delos had become merely a front for the economic purposes of a secret fraternity whose concern was money changing, silver bullion and the slave trade. JCT: Much as the British Queen or the American presidency are merely fronts for that same secret fraternity.
Page 20 These persons had conducted their business in the shade of the temple courtyards from ancient days as might give sanctity to their activities which so often were exercised against the well-being of the people who sheltered them. Such activities were frequently concerned with the movements of bullion, the factor most of all giving rise to instability and therefore so necessary to the full exploitation of the people. The island of Delos, although virtually infertile and without special advantages such as natural harbors, due to gifts of pilgrims visiting the temple of Apollo and the deposits of the cities, "trapezitae" and leading citizens, became very rich; a great center of trade and banking, and above all, a center for the great slave trade from which almost none were safe. (Plato was reputed to have been sold as a slave for 20 minae.) JCT: I guess they were much like all the useless mountains of Switzerland today. Nothing much going there other than being a haven for usurers.
Oskar Seyffert, in Dictionary of Classical Antiquities wrote: "Delphi, Delos, Ephesus and Samos were much used as banks for loans and deposits both by individuals and governments." Therefore, the great sanctuary functioned very much the same way, from the economic standpoint, as the central bank in this day. The agents of International Money Power, as used by the priesthood to take care of the fiscal dealings of the temple and to whom was farmed out the credit of the temple, must have fully understood that the priesthood had betrayed their high calling. These agents would have lurked as only faintly discernible shadows behind the temple facade although they instigated much of what came to pass in those days. By maintaining the position of the priesthood, they maintained themselves and their secret power for whatever they brought about, especially if of evil, it may safely be assumed, the priesthood would be held responsible. JCT: Of course, it's not quite as secret today where bankers get together at large conferences to dictate terms to governments every year. Though nations may claim sovereignty, they are all on their knees at meetings of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.
Page 21 Hence the people never questioned the existence of the temple but as the place where the will of god was exercised through his servants. That it had come to function more as instrument in the capacity of front for an international power concerned largely with money creation and the control of the slave trade was something they never came to fully understand. No more in this day do those who toil on through the few years of their lives realize that the governments that they so naively believe are theirs are but a wavering shadow. The absolute reality of sovereign power only obtainable through total control over monetary creation and emission and cancellation is not theirs. They but function as standards but which international money creative forces create the world's money in a given area. JCT: It's true. Most people can't believe that there may be a cabal of billionaires who have planned their enslavement through the debt created by the money system. They can't believe that people with all they could possibly want to simply to crush them down. That's what's the very worst. Though 200 years ago, they could have excused their usury as taking care of their own in a world of scarcity. It's the fact that we've been in a world of abundance for the past 100 years that makes their crime all the worse and indefensible.
Therefore, this economic power would not only derive from those loans in precious metals but also from the fact that those very secret fraternities understanding fully the principles of Ledger Credit Page Entry Money, operated under it's patronage. There can be no doubt that the principles of monetary inflation, or better put, abstract money creation, were well understood to the "trapezitae" or professional bankers to whom the Temple at Delos apparently delegated these functions; JCT: What's amazing is that until very recently, bankers would not even admit that they were lending out new money. Many bankers and economists today, as witnessed by Dr. Flaherty and Simms, still won't admit that it's new money and not depositors' funds. They've got the piggy bank model so ingrained in their minds that they never notice that piggy banks don't have a source from which this new money comes from. I hope many of you have been amused by the mass of contradictions we've witnessed, usually within the same paragraph. I reread Flaherty's beauties on a regular basis. I should make a comedy routine out of it by enlarging Fig 2 and Fig 3 and then reading his contradictions and pointing out that the pipe is connected here, then there, then here again, then there, etc. I'm just happy that these tracts are available for historians of posterity to give them an idea of how difficult it is to explain how money works to a bunch of financially insane individuals in charge.
Page 22 And equally known was how easily merchants could be trained to make payments by cheque drawn on account consisting of supposed deposits with a recognized banker. JCT: And why not when credit is a perfect currency? As long as the users realize they are borrowing credit and not the gold it happens to be wearing when it's issued. But if it can keep Ph.D.s in Economics confused even today, how could we expect anyone ordinary to beat the brainwashing. That what makes Christ, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Mohammed and the other Abolitionist saints so special, they broke their conditioning that billions of others have never been able to. After all, when it came to an interest-free world, Christ did say that "many saints and great men have longed to see what you have seen but have not." It's just amazing how Christ's message changes when you realize that his good news for the poor is a "no-interest" world. Actually, ask any Christian minister "What's Christ's good news for the poor?" and they won't have any unless it involves giving them money to make you feel good.
Thus no transfer of actual silver need have been involved and what is now euphemistically described as the fractional reserve system (a swindle indurated into a system!) was operated. JCT: And yet, most economists on sci.econ think that the fractional reserve system is a new development while Astle makes a pretty good argument that it's been in operation for thousands of years. One has to wonder why all the secrecy all these years so that even its teachers of economics don't know anything about its history.
The enormous volume of exchanges that could be carried on without the movement of one drachma of silver, and consequently the monopolization of trade and industry and subsequent control over the whole world and its affairs that could be brought about at literally no real cost, provided those dealing in money changing and financial matters maintained close solidarity, was known to the bankers. JCT: It is amazing when you think about it. They didn't even need to have any gold at all as long as the units were denominated in gold. One of the best stories ever written was Salvation Island by Quebec Socred Louis Even telling the stories about a group of shipwreck survivors who are taken in by a banker who fleeces them for the interest by setting up a credit money system based on his "chest" full of gold. It all worked fine other than the interest owed even though he didn't have any gold at all. It demonstrates how a pure credit system works fine, again except for the interest. Had Oliver the banker charged them a service charge, he wouldn't have had to foreclosed on them all and eventually be ejected from the island by the brute force of the majority. That's the problem though with Social Credit. Though Louis Even himself knew that brute force was never the solution to oust the guys who own the arms industries and finance the armies and ran for political office himself, most Socreds decry trying to use the political system to throw off their yoke of slavery leaving them only with brute force or empty talk. Given they could never use brute force, it explains their history of total non-success.
The tremendous entre-pot trade of Delos, especially in slaves, could not derive from anything else other than the acceptance of the "Credit" of the temple from the hands of these aliens. These men would be skilled money changers bred and trained in the ancient financial sophistication of the cities of Babylonia, Aram, Phoenicia,etc. They would be fully conversant with the possibilities inherent in such ledger credit page entry money and whose successful functioning as an abstract inflation of the number of units of silver they claimed to control, depended on secrecy and solidarity amongst themselves, and above all, on the patronage of the corrupted temples. JCT: Same goes for today.
Page 23 This flow of silver to Delos would have enabled Delos to partially replace Athens during the 3rd century B.C. as the new center from which international money power came to control the finances of the Eastern Mediterranean. Professor Rostovtsev refers to a purchase of grain in Delos by a Sinotes of Histicaea, a subject city of Macedonia in which he observes that the purchase was made out of money advanced by a Rhodian banker. This suggests that the banking of Rhodes was interlocked with that of Delos and that those silver reserves of the Temple of Apollo functioned also as reserve to Rhodian banking. Delos, because of its sanctity would constitute a much safer store house for precious metal hoards than ever Rhodes might be. JCT: What? International bankers tied in together thousands of years ago? Even with their own Switzerland to hide out in? Of course.
Previous references to banking in Grecian cities as being conducted by aliens are also verified by Rostovtsev. The question therefore arises "What aliens?" Would they be members of the same fraternity of men who were standing almost above mankind in their manipulation of powers that not so long previously had been reserved solely to the gods and exercised through a dedicated priesthood? Such power being lost to kings forever when they permitted the institution of accounting to a silver standard. JCT: Like the Rothschilds and Rockefellers of today?
Page 24 The latter days of Delos and the Temple of Apollo when 10,000 slaves were shipped abroad in one day alone would certainly suggest the existence as controllers of its economic affairs a class of persons internationally minded and utterly callous to the sufferings of the mixture of broken races that passed before it on the way to the slave stockades. JCT: You have to admit that shipping out 10,000 slaves in one day had to take a lot of logistical organization. Imagine shipping out 10,000 slaves from any city today. They'd need 250 buses. Anyway, the men who could do this to a small world of yesteryear have relatives doing it to us today, the only difference being that they can't work us to death like they used to in silver mines and galley ships though there's still a mess of genocide they'll have to answer to someday.
Although slavery previous to the 4th century B.C. had been more in the nature of a benign custom similar to the custom of the bonded servant or apprentice of the 18th century in Northern Europe, after the Macedonian conquests it became a custom in no way so benign and herding of all kinds of persons formerly free, day in and day out, on to the ships of the day, could not have been accomplished but with whip and chain, and families being torn apart without compunction or compassion and little children defenseless against the abuse of monsters. JCT: The fruits of Rothschilds' and Rockefellers' labors are just as ugly and murderous today.
While the facts of the Temple of Apollo at Delos are relatively clear, supposition of the existence of the Temple of Athene at Athens as being under the secret control of the bankers, while not being so clear, is logical. The reserve of 6000 talents of coined silver stored in the Acropolis at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War would certainly seem to indicate that the Temple loaned itself to that major activity of so- called bankers, the creation of abstract money, and shielded them in their very carefully guarded secret that most money circulating between merchants within and without the Athenian empire was that which was created as by ledger credit page entry. The silver reserve would have been the banker's window dressing and served to take care of day to day expenses. JCT: The same as the amount of gold in yesteryear. The bulk of money is actually credit and almost always has been. As he points out, 6000 talents certainly wasn't enough to run their civilization but could certainly act as base for the credit creation.
The Peloponnesian War ended no more than little over a hundred years before the time of Alexander. According to A. Andreades in his essay on the war finances of Alexander the Great, total expenditures per annum at the time of the crossing of the Hellespon were 5000 - 7000 talents. This was the expenses of an army far from home and to which little credit would have been available and most disbursements would have been paid in solid metal. JCT: So a treasure of only 6000 talents was certainly insufficient to run their world. They had to have used credit based on that metal.
Page 25 It is therefore out of the question to consider whether 6000 talents of silver were adequate for the total finances of the Peloponnesian War over ten years. If all disbursements had been in silver, it is doubtful if such a so-called reserve could have lasted six months. JCT: I don't think we can argue with his conclusion. They had to have used credit for the bulk of their money.
This silver was merely the foundation of that illusion that those baked clay facsimiles of Greek coinages which circulated so well between merchants and governments were redeemable in silver coin; just as the last three hundred years in the British Empire all the Queen's loyal subjects have believed that every bank note in circulation was redeemable in gold! JCT: Again, good point. It was the same scam then as it is today.
Page 26 On the subject of such fiduciary currencies in ancient times, particularly Athenian, Francois Lenormant wrote: "Cedrenus claims that the Romans had wooden money in very ancient times; but this tradition can probably be relegated to the domain of fables with the Roman money of clay of which Suidas writes. However it could be that this last information is connected with several types of assignat briefly used at the time and which could not have been emitted by public authority. Clay molds of silver and gold currencies of various countries are frequently found in Athens. The learned Sicilian Numismatist Antonio Salinas, during his stay in Greece, collected a large number of these monuments, either as originals or molds or drawings. The purpose of this special class of objects that are of course connected with numismatics is very obscure. But it can be conjectured that such pseudo-currencies of baked clay molded from existing types of money had a fiduciary circulation of quite a private character, however, similar to that of the credit notes whose emission as authorized in certain countries by particular institutions." In other words, the clay facsimiles functioned in much the same manner as did bank notes over the last three hundred years in the Anglo-Saxon world; they were money, privately created and emitted. Francois Lenormant lived at a time when relatively little was realized by numismatists of the functions of "Ledger Credit Page Entry Money," or often enough of money itself as being so many numbers injected into circulation amongst the people, either as pure abstraction and functioning as by transfer of such ledger credit page entry, or as tangible record on clay, paper, copper, silver, or gold. JCT: Of course, people who think Economics makes sense won't have any clue about what these scholars and Astle are talking about though they make eminent sense to anyone who understands how the real credit based on metal works. I only hope that those who still harbor some confusion will get a clearer picture of the workings of the system by the time we've finished examining Astle and Quigley's works.
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