THE BABYLONIAN WOE Chapters I-III by David Astle
CHAPTER I. "In the Beginning was the Word." II. The Temple and the Counting House III. "Per Me Die Regnant!"
(Cover) "What is money? How did it get started? Who trusts it? Who has the right to print it or mint it? Is money here to stay and if not, what will take its place? Has there ever been, or will there ever be, equality in the possession of money or other assets? David Astle has given a good part of his life in a study of these questions and now puts the benefit of years of reading and research into this book which is part history; part criticism and part prophesy. To get back to the first question. What IS money? Some intelligent and some surprising answers are here." Gordon Sinclair
(Cover back) Newsletter of the Naval Officers Association "One of our members, David Astle, has just finished writing one of the most erudite, extensively researched and interesting books that has ever come past this Editor... One expects it would be of considerable interest to those with an interest in the finances of the world, or in (very) ancient history, going back to the time of "money's" beginning in Mesopotamia and Egypt. The author is not gentle in dealing with the effect of the major financial manipulators, whether they be nefarious Egyptian Kings, politicians, the advisors to Charles of England, or even to today's dubious banking-influence wielders. His scholarly documentation of sources make it a textbook in its own right."
(Front cover inside) THE BABYLONIAN WOE A study of the Origin of Certain Banking Practices, and of their effect on the events of Ancient History written in the light of the Present Day. David Astle
The author commenced a sea career at sixteen years of age. During the following years he travelled most of the world's great trade routes, and visited its principal ports. He served as an officer in the Royal Navy during World War II, seeing service in many theatres of war. After he left the sea shortly after the conclusion of this war, he informs me that it soon became clear to him that the British Empire and everything he believed had been effectively upheld through the achievement of victory, seemed to be literally melting away before his eyes, and many unexplained factors, totally destructive of the "will- to-be" of the European peoples, were apparently entering the current of life. In 1961, he was fortunate enough to encounter those who were able to give him the information necessary to enable him to see in what direction he should guide his studies so that he would be able to better understand the true significance of this swiftly passing sequence of apparently chance events... "THE BABYLONIAN WOE"is one of the results of these studies. In this scholarly work, true-born Anglo-Saxon David Astle, stylist in the greatest traditions of his people, has presented to the world a history of the effects of monetary mechanics in very ancient times, with emphasis on Ethno-psychology. It illustrates how, even in the earliest times of which written record remains, the days of Babylonia or before, a so-called monetary science undoubtedly existed; being then, as in today, never more than as instrument by which its secret and cynical controllers wittingly influenced the destinies of individuals, nations, and empires as to (temporary) glory or final disaster. I strongly recommend this important and well-documented work as a most useful reference book; complementing any study of Economic or Monetary history. It will be a great asset to learned societies, top management, and self-teaching individuals in all parts of the world. The bibliography is a MUST for any who seek to understand the significance of monetary creation and emission in relation to human destiny and ultimate fate. Paul A Gwinner, PH.D.
(Back cover inside)
"The Babylonian Woe" With these cryptic words Milton ended the sonnet he wrote in 1655 A.D. in which he expressed indignation and lament for the slaughter of the Piedmontese Protestants by Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy and Piedmont, and which reads as follows: "Avenge, O Lord, Thy slaughtered saints, whose bones Lie scattered on the Alpine mountains cold; Even them who kept Thy truth so pure of old, When all our fathers worshipped stocks and stones. Forget not: in thy book record their groans Who were Thy sheep, and in their ancient fold Slain by the bloody Piedmontese, that roll'd Mother with infant down the rocks. Their moans. The vales redoubled to the hills, and they To Heaven. Their martyred blood and ashes sow O'er all the Italian fields, where still doth sway. The triple tyrant: that from these may grow A Hundred fold, who, having learned Thy way, Early may fly the Babylonian Woe.
In 1926, not long after the end of the 1st so-called "Great" War, when the peoples of Europe were still endeavoring to stagger to their feet once again, weak with loss of blood after four years of what would be more properly called massacre, rather than war, Professor Soddy, famous Atomic physicist turned "Economist" wrote (after Milton):
Avenge, O Lord, they slaughtered sons, the Old World shambles richening with their scattered bones; Even them who kept thy truth,the scoffer owns, When all our fathers worshipped gods of gold. The generous quest of youth and science sold, The surplus changed forever being loans, The wreck-strewn shores and devastated zones Of war forget not; resurrect their mold. The flower the fire has mown, the roots decay, The dust and ashes of the harvest sow In every cot and croft where still doth sway The money tyrant, that from these may grow A hundred-fold, who having learned thy way Early may fly the Babylonian Woe.
In this present work David Astle clarifies for all time the true meaning of the words: "The Babylonian Woe." His own verse embodying this term, also written in lament, is to be found on Page v. ----
(Page i) THE BABYLONIAN WOE "By using a mirror of brass, you may see to adjust your cap; by using ancient times as a mirror you may learn to foresee the rise and fall of empires." Emperor T'ai Tsung 627 A.D. - 650 A.D.
(Page ii) The intellectual faculties however are not of themselves sufficient to produce external action; they require the aid of physical force, THE DIRECTION AND COMBINATION OF WHICH ARE WHOLLY AT THE DISPOSAL OF MONEY, THAT MIGHTY SPRING BY WHICH THE TOTAL FORCE OF HUMAN ENERGIES IS SET IN MOTION. Augustus Boeckh; translated; The Public Economy of Athens, p7; Book I, London, 1828
(Page iii) THE BABYLONIAN WOE A study of the Origin of Certain Banking Practices, and of their effect on the events of Ancient History, written in the light of the Present Day. by David Astle Published as a private edition. Orders for this book and all communications to be addressed to: Box 282, Station P, Toronto, Canada, M5S 2S8. Printed by Harmony Printing Ltd.
(Page v) Demoralized our men; small pride now left! Two useless wars! With racial kith and kin, In battle of our Gods were we then reft... Yes, Those who steered the wasted years of strife Brought to the true, in death the end. Now few their ashes watch or tend...
Who then is left to stay our natural rule? And who shall say to weakness: "No more show!" You sheathe the sword? None but a wishful fool Thinks thus! One world for us who were One World? Alas! Our Gods are gone forever! So Who then shall fight the Babylonian Woe.
Page vii "For money has been the ruin of many and has misled the minds of Kings." Ecclesiasticus 8, verse 2.
When I originally approached my study as best I might, dealing with the growth in pre-antiquity and antiquity of what is known as the International Money Power, and the particular derivative of the money creative activities of such International Money Power that might be defined as the Life Alternative Factor, I did so with some diffidence. Perhaps I was overly conscious of what seemed to be the inadequateness of my preliminary training in these matters and that in no way could I describe myself as deeply conversant with the languages of ancient times, or, in the case of Mesopotamia, their scripts. However, in my preliminary studies involving checking through the indices of a number of those standard books of reference dealing with the ancient civilizations, I soon found that any feelings of inferiority in so far as the adequacy of my scholarship relative to my particular subject was concerned were unwarranted, and that qualms in these respects were by no means justified... In almost all of such books of reference, except those that classified themselves as economic or monetary histories, was practically no clear approach to the subject of money and finance, or to those exchange systems that must have existed in order that the so- called civilizations might come to be. In the odd case where the translations of the texts might reveal some key clue, no more special emphasis was placed herein than might have been placed on the mention of a gold cup, a ring, a seal, or some exquisite piece of stone work. In Jastrows's "Assyria" there was no reference to money at all; in Breasted's "History of Egypt," a volume of six hundred pages or so, only brief mention on pages 97-98. In "A History of Egypt" by Sir William M. Flinders-Petrie, in the records of Sir John Marshall and E.J.C. McKay in respect to the diggings at Mohenjo-Daro, and in the writings of Sir Charles L. Wooley and others on their findings from their studies of the exhumed archives of the city states of ancient Mesopotamia, little enough information exists on the matters referred to above. In Christopher Dawson who wrote widely on ancient times, particularly in the "Age of the Gods" which dealt with most cultures until the commencement of that period known as antiquity, there is only one reference to money, casual and not conveying much to the average reader; this reference to be found on page 131... In Kings' "History of Babylon" there was practically nothing on these matters. Thus in almost all of the works of the great archaeologists and scholars specializing in the ancient civilizations, there is a virtual silence on that all important matter, the system of distribution of food surpluses, and surpluses of all those items needed towards the maintenance of a good and continuing life so far as were required by climate and customs. In all these writings of these great and practical scholars, the workings of that mighty engine which injects the unit of exchange amongst the peoples, and without which no civilization as we know it can come to be, is only indicated by a profound silence. Of the systems of exchanges, of the unit of exchange and its issue by private individuals, as distinct from its issue as by the authority of sovereign rule, on this all important matter governing in such totality the conditions of progression into the future of these peoples, not a word to speak of... While it is true that the average archaeologist, in being primarily concerned with the results of the forces that gave rise to the human accretions known as civilizations, has little enough time to meditate on these forces themselves, especially since so little evidence exists of what created them, or of how they provided guidance to men in earlier days, the widespread character of these omission borders on the mystifying. Virtual failure to speculate on those most important matters of all; the structure of the machinery of the systems of exchanges which undoubtedly had given rise to the ancient city civilizations, and the true nature of the energy source by which such machinery was driven, whether by injections of money as known this last three thousand years or so, or by injections of an exchange media of which little significant evidence or memory remains, is cause for concern. The truth of the lines as quoted herein from Boeckh's "Public Economy of Athens" (page ii) is immediately clear to all and that the physical force underlying all civilizations must have been the system whereby surpluses were allocated to the people according to their place in the pyramid of life and to their needs; thus, when being controlled by the benevolent law of a dedicated ruler, maintaining at all times the true and natural order of life. It must not be supposed,therefore, that there is a lack of understanding of the importance of these matters; nor that there is any special conspiracy of silence, even though there might indeed be the temptation to arrive at such a conclusion. (According to "Tragedy and Hope," the important and compendious work of Dr. Carroll Quigley, an outstanding scholar of liberal outlook, (as interpreted by the reviewer, W. Cleon Skousen), such conspiracy certainly exists, and is vast in scope to say the least.) Rather it were better to accept things as they appear, and assume that these scholars merely present the fragments of fact as they unearth them; leaving speculation of the true significance of such fragments of fact in relation to the weft and warp of life, to those considered to be particularly specialized in various fields represented. In the case of money and finance, the scholars concerned would be classified as economic or monetary historians. Thus little enough seems to be available on the subject of money and finance in ancient days. Nor seems to exist examination of the significance of such money and finance relative to the progress about which so much has been written in modern times. Apart from Alexander Del Mar who wrote in relatively recent days, and apart from that of the philosophers of antiquity such as Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Zeno, etc, almost no speculation seems to be available from scholarly sources in regards to the unprejudiced PHILOSOPHY of money, in ancient times. On the all important subject of the consequences of the creation and issuance of money by private persons as opposed to its creation and issuance according to the will of a benevolent, instructed and dedicated ruler, almost no speculation seems to exist in ancient or in modern times. Of those forces that sought throughout history to undermine any ruler who may have been firmly in the saddle because of his exercise of that prerogative which is the foundation of the State Power or God-Will of which has is the living evincement, insomuch as he maintained firm control of the original issuance of money and its injection into circulation amongst the people as against State expenditures, almost nothing seems to be known. Very little information is available of the means those forces employed towards this purpose through injection into circulation amongst the peoples of silver and gold, and of instruments indicating possession of the same. Practically no information seems to exist of the growth of private money creation in the days of ancient city states of Mesopotamia, of which, because of their records being preserved on fire-baked clay, more is known than of more more recent civilizations; and the gap must necessarily be filled by a certain amount of speculation. Little is known of the beginnings of the fraudulent issuance by private persons of the unit of exchange, as in opposition to the law of the gods from whom kings in ancient times claimed to derive their divine origin; nor is there any information on the significance of such practice relative to the continued stability of the natural order of life in which obtained that system wherein the fount of all power was the God; such power descending to man by way of king and priesthood and directing him as he proceeded about his everyday affairs, content that God is in His Heaven and all's right with the world. The use of tools of hardened iron in the mining industry about the beginning of the first millennium B.C., together with a changed attitude towards slave labor in which the slave, so far as mining was concerned, was assessment at cost per life, must have brought relatively a very flood of silver into circulation of the cities of the Near East. Such flood off silver injected into circulation largely by private business houses who no doubt controlled the mines, however distant, especially after the institution of coinage in which a piece of silver of known weight and fineness passed from hand to hand, must finally and forever have broken that control of exchanges previously exercised by the god of the city through priest king and priest. Thus all, priest-kings and priests, came to forget that the foundations of the power given to them from on High towards the maintenance of the right living and tranquil procession through life of their peoples, were the laws of distribution of surpluses as written on the scribes tablet; laws instituted by the god himself, each ordering a specified dispensation from the surpluses in his warehouses in the Ziggurat, to the holder of the tablet. They too fell into the error of believing that silver with value created as a result of its being used as a balancing factor in international exchange, could become a perpetual storehouse of value... They themselves became consumed in the scramble for this gleaming metal, so conceding it, through its controllers the power to set itself up in opposition to the law of the gods; to raise itself up in its own right, a god in itself. In its exercise, the fiat of the internationally minded group of merchants and bullion brokers that arbitrarily dictated the exchange value of such silver, being in actuality determination internationally of the value of money, place such groups controlling silver exchanges above and beyond local laws of the local god, and indeed conferred on them the power to influence kingly appointment. It made of them the servants of one god, a god above all gods; thereby somewhat relegating the god whose order on the state warehouses as inscribed on clay by the scribe or priest, had been the law governing exchanges, to the place of their servant, their instrument... "I have, however, kept before me as a guiding principle, in this as in other historical works I have written, the maxim that the complexity of life should never be forgotten, and that no single feature should be regarded as basic and decisive," wrote Professor Rostovtsev, scholar and Economic Historian of renown. (Mikhail I. Rostovtsev: "A Social and Economic History of the Hellenistic World, p viii, Vol I, Oxford; 1941) It is true that while no single feature in the progression of history might be regarded as basic and decisive, it is certain that neither money nor treasure will protect the weak and disarmed in the face of a brutal and determined conqueror beyond those successful achievements, can be no decision more final. It is also certain that the money accumulation mania injected by fame into the minds of people as a replacement to their concern with those natural qualities endeavoring to color the current of human life through time, amongst which are numbered virtue, honour, and godliness, destroys equally as another debilitating disease, and will surely and speedily drag any people down to a degeneracy and decay... A great army could not be more efficient in its power of destruction. 8 The main discussion of the "Artha-Sastra" of Kautilya, Hindu classic instructing kings and rulers as to their proper conduct towards good government, was as to whether financial or military organization came first of all as the root of strength and power in any any organized state. (Sarvepalli Radhaakrishnan and Charles Moore: "A Source Book in Indian Philosophy" p219-220. Princeton; 1957) Clearly in that day no less than this day, financial organization preceded military organization; therefore, there is not much point really in discussion of so obvious a fact and truth. While an effete people, though money as it is known, is in their hands, soon give way to vigor; nevertheless vigor, without strict organization of its finances, which, while constituting strict organization of its labour, also enables it to create, or to obtain by purchase from elsewhere the finest of weapons, will not much avail... Thus and it has been demonstrated through history over and over again, it is clear there is one feature basic and decisive in the progression of human life; certainly during the latter years of which memory exists. That feature, particularly in relatively modern societies from the bronze age onwards, and during that period of the rapid perfection of the mass production of weapons, is monetary organization, and what precious metals are available for purposes of international exchange as against the purchase of those finest weapons and essential materials of wear only obtainable abroad, and as wages for the most skilled men at arms from wherever obtainable, abroad or otherwise... The gates of Egypt stand fast like Inmutet They open not to the Westerners They open not to the Easterners They open not to the Northerners They open not to the Southerners They open not to the enemy who dwells within. (Ancient Egyptian poem; Christopher Dawson: "The Age of the Gods" p 148) Much of history as we know it is the record of civilizations to counter and evade destruction of themselves from without or within, or is the record of their efforts to destroy other seemingly competing civilizations or peoples attacking them from without or within. War is as inevitable as is peace as the result of the exhaustion of war, and there are few peoples that escape; but wars of the last three thousand years have not been relatively infrequent occurrences and have been an incessantly recurring evil... It is no chance that the growth of warfare into a very cancer eating into the vitals of mankind, and more particularly the white races is parallel to the growth of that other cancer which is private, and therefore, irresponsible, money creation and emission... It seems that almost none of the scholars make any serious effort to throw light on the real meaning of this matter of private monetary emission, and the disastrous effects that it has had, and in finality, will have, towards the defining of the remaining period of time of man upon this earth, as being brief and uncertain. Those strange decisions of kings signaling the opening of wars as frightful and disastrous to the European peoples, as the last two so- called "World Wars," decisions so abnegatory of self, but more than that, abnegatory of the best interests of the peoples they represented before God, far from being the directives of a benevolent force, are the directives of a force which cannot but be described in any way but as being wholly malevolent. (For example, the folly of Britain in letting itself and the Empire be stamped into these last two so-called "Great" wars, may be compared to that of the man described by the Emperor Augustus who goes fishing with a golden hook; he has everything to lose and little to gain. [Suetonius: the Twelve Caesars II, 25.]) The great engine which is the international control of monetary emission and regulation, driven as it was until recently by the catalytic fuel of gold alone, is not almost world embracing in the scope of its operations. It seems there is no change in the attitude of those its guides, nor any admission of the folly of their misuse of this God-power which they direct towards the good of themselves and their friends. Their obsession, despite ruin for all looming on every horizon, seems to remain the same narrow vision of the day of their own world supremacy wherein they will rule as absolute lords over all; although by now it should be apparent to them, no less than to all thinking people, that if this madness concealed within the much talked about conception known as progress is not brought to a complete arrestment, nothing remains but an end wherein shall be silence and no song,for indeed there will be no singer, nor any to sing to... As it looks today, it may be the end of the Indo-European peoples whose diligent labours made so much of this world of today... It may be the end, final and absolute for all men for that matter... it may be the end for this our Earth, our only place and home and hope in the awful endlessness of space and time. It should be more than apparent that in the relatively recent day when kingship and god-ship were one, so far as the simple souls were concerned, and the god and his viceroy on earth, the priest-king,were creators and controllers of the economic good, exchanges were created in order that the people might live a fuller life, and not so much to benefit any secret society or interlocked group standing aside from the main paths of mankind, but to benefit all who kneeled humbly before the Almighty, each fully in acceptance of himself as part of the god-wish, eternal and infinite; each one in his time an integral unit carefully placed in the pyramid of life itself. History over these last three thousand years particularly has largely been the interweaving of both a witting and an unwitting distortion of the truth, with all the inevitable consequences which have been expected and now are but a little way ahead. (Much of this was predicted in the the "Revelation of St. John the Divine.) Kings largely became the mouthpiece and sword arm of those semi- secret societies that controlled the material of money as its outward and visible symbols came to be restricted to gold, silver, and copper. The fiat of the god in heaven which had been the decisive force behind that which brought about an equitable exchange, was replaced by the will of those classes controlling the undertones of civilization, leaders of the world of slave drivers, caravaneers, outcasts, and criminals generally, such as was to be discerned on the edges of the ancient city civilizations, and followed the trade routes between them... The instrument of this will was precious metal, whose supply was controlled by the leaders of these classes through their control of the slave trade, since mining was rarely profitable in the case of precious metals except with slave labour, even after the development of hardened iron tools and efficient methods of smelting. The power of these men, indifferent and alien to most cities as they were, relative to that power it was replacing, which as the will of the benevolent god of the city had been made absolute by sowing in the minds of men over the thousands of years the idea of such metals having a specially high value relative to other goods and services being offered for exchange; indeed that they were a veritable store house of value. The law of the ruler previously exercised towards the well being of the people in that they might live a good and honourable life accordingly became corrupted. It became merely a symbol raised before their gaze in order that they might not look down and see the evil gnawing away at the roots of the Tree of Life itself, destroying all peace and goodness. Nor could those semi-secret groups of persons be seen who so often were the sources of such evil. In their contemptuous indifference to the men of the states who found meaningfulness and tranquillity through life lived in natural order under the law of the King, they constituted hidden force deeply inimical to the best interests of mankind. Through stealthy issue of precious metal commodity money into circulation amongst the peoples, replacing that money which represented the fiat or will of the god of the city and which was merely an order on the state warehouses through his scribes, this internationally minded group, from the secrecy of their chambers, were able to make a mockery of the faith and belief of simple people. The line of communication from god to man through priest-king and priest was cut, being replaced by their own twisted purposes such as they were; not however guiding mankind into heaven that could have been and where all would be life, and light, and hope, but into such hell as to escape from which men might gladly come to accept the idea of Mass Suicide. Bibliography: 131 citations
CHAPTER I: IN THE BEGINNING WAS THE WORD
Page 1 Every conclusion in respect to money and its creators in the world of the Ancient Civilizations indicates the existence of a far reaching conspiracy in respect to monetary issuance influencing the progression of man's history. It was parent to that acknowledged and most obvious conspiracy such as exists today. (According to the review of Tragedy and Hope, Dr. Carroll Quigley; New York 1966, as contained in the Naked Capitalist published by Leon Skousen, Salt Lake City 1970) The whole notion of the institution of precious metals by weight as the common denominator of exchanges cannot but have been disseminated by a conspiratorial organization fully aware of the extent of the power to which it would accede, could it but maintain control over bullion supplies and the mining which brought them into being in the first place. As far back as Neolithic times, values (and by inference money) were already expressed in terms of silver by weight at the time of the Azug-Bau Dynasty at Kish in Mesopotamia (3268-2897 B.C.)
Page 2 That sales are recorded in the 4th Millennium B.C. means that even at that time, there was a clear conception of the significance of that abstract monetary unit for sales were in terms of money. The true meaning of such a concept being largely incomprehensible to most even as in this day, except they were the truly initiated, those controlling the internal exchanges, namely the priesthood and scribes, might well be excused if they early fell into the error of expressing values in terms of the standard of values in international trade. This serious error brought about finally not only the collapse of that power through whose medium the god kings were best able to serve their peoples, but also the collapse and fading of the meaning and benevolent purpose of the god kings themselves. With silver bullion controlled by an international and conspiratorial minded group, as indeed it is obvious it must have been, considering the main sources of silver supply as being far away from those centers of civilization whose money depended on it, and yet with people coming to equate money, in actuality the law of the rules, then it becomes quite clear that scarcity or plenty in money depended on the manipulations internationally of that group controlling the distribution of precious metal bullion, and the plenty or scarcity they created, as was convenient to them. If there was no silver, why then, there was no money and prices fell. Substitute gold for silver, and history seeming to fast repeat itself, we have the condition of the European world of the last 2000 years. If there was no gold, why then again, there was no money.
Page 3 Hence was able to develop that conspiracy against mankind most exemplified by a continuous propaganda of hate against all authority. As those controlling totally the economic life of a state through monetary creation and emission must have felt that kings and gods were more of a nuisance than anything else, the instigators of this conspiracy in whatever place and era, obviously were those who first did the business of bankers; the controllers of values, and consequently the economic life of the states wherever the precious metal standard was used. According to Sir Charles Wooley, the excavator of Ur, the unit of exchange in the 4th Millennium was the measure of barley. Salaries of government officials of Hammurabai, King of Babylon, were assessed in barley but paid in silver. The notion of the numerous officials of Babylon waiting in line to have silver cut off from the bullion bar, although offered with sincerity, patently is as erroneous as that conception of the every day use in the exchanges of the "aes rude" in a similar way in which classical scholars and numismatists would have us believe; and which implied that the foreman and his laborers in ancient Rome also waited in line to have a fragment of copper weighed out in order that their wives might be able to go to the market to purchase the evening meal.
Page 4 Clearly the word silver in the texts means no more than the word "Plata" in modern Spanish, or "Argent" in modern day French. These words literally translate as silver, but as money, they may be anything from a grimy tattered paper note, to a silver peso, to the brass coin. Similarly, the word from the texts denoting silver may be safely said to have meant that which passed for money, be it clay or wood or class or leather or papyrus or stone. (In his book "La monnaie dans l'antiquite" Francois Lenormant commented "We have proof of the use of glass money in Egypt from the beginning of the time of the High Empire.") Thus once money had come to be more of an abstract unit of account based for its value in desirable goods and services, on the barter power of a certain weight of silver bullion related to the constant value of barley, it was no major advance for those who benefited most from this conception, namely the bullion brokers, money changers and bankers, to find a weak king and a corruptible priesthood who could be brought to lose sight of the total control of the city which was the right of the god they served and who might turn a blind eye to those other more sinister activities by which the power of the Ziggurat was further undermined. In the Age of Gods, Dawson remarks: "The temple was the bank of the community through which money could be lent at interest and advances made to the farmer on the security of his crop. Thus there grew up in Mesopotamia a regular money economy based on precious metals as standards of exchange."
Page 5 This information from Dawson is most illuminating; but of the undertones, he seems to see little, or he just does not choose to speculate as to their nature. Principal amongst those undertones, and quite possibly the force that brought these changes about, may safely presumed to be the secret and private expansion of the total money supply effected primarily by the issuance into circulation of false receipts for silver and other valuables supposedly held on deposit. Such receipts would be accepted by merchants instead of the actual metal, and would function as money, and would be an addition to the total money supply, though not understood as such by the rulers who would thus easily be inveigled into lending their sanction to seemingly harmless practices; or at least into turning a blind eye; especially if priesthood and scribes so advised. According to Wooley, trade seemed to extend from the city of Ur over the whole known world as far afield as Europe, being carried on by means of letters of credit, bills of exchange, and "promises to pay" (cheques), made out in terms of staple necessities expressed in terms of silver at valuation of barley. (On page 124 of his book Abraham (London 1936), Wooley comments: "A trade which involved the greater part of the then known world was carried on with remarkable smoothness by means of what we should call a paper currency based on commodity values.)
Page 6 The merchant loaned money to his customers, such money merely being an abstraction indicated by the figures on the clay tablet; in earlier days being backed by the will-force of the god of the city, and in latter days by the promises of silver. Thus, the caravaneer or traveling merchant gave credit. Whether his own or that of the merchant for whom he was agent or directly from the Ziggurat itself, it functioned as a form of foreign aid similar to foreign aid today. Considering that the merchant operated solely with the credit of the temple that raised him up, while the temple remained supreme, such foreign aid was instrument of state policy, maintaining the servility of lesser states while maintaining the steady working capacity of the home manufacturies, and a contented people in consequence.
Page 7 With the growth of silver in circulation, that which had been total economic control from the gods through his servants in the Ziggurat was bypassed and merchants were now able to deal privately using their own credit or powers of abstract money creation. They were able through the control of distant mining operations to afflict a previously dedicated priesthood with thought of personal possession; and through the control of the manufacture of weapons in distant places, they were able to arm warlike peoples towards the destruction of whosoever they might choose. Those merchants who were the main sources of precious metals came to realize that they could actually create that which functioned as money with but the record incised by the stylus on the clay tablet promising metal or money. Obviously, as a result of this discovery which depended on the confidence they were able to create in the minds of the peoples of their integrity, provided they banded themselves together with an absolute secrecy that excluded all other than their proven and chosen brethren, they could replace the god of the city as the giver of all.
Page 8 Some evidence of the knowledge and previous existence of such practice of issuance of false receipts as against supposed valuables on deposit for safe-keeping clearly exists in the Law No. 7 of the great Hammurabai Code. According to Professor Bright, the Code of Hammurabai was but a revision of two legal codes promulgated in Sumerian by Lipit-Ishtar of Isin, and in Akkadian by the King of Eshnummua in 1950 B.C. The severity of the penalty and the placing of this law so high in the code leave little doubt that it was directed against an evil that was by no means new, and, who knows, may have been one of the deep seated causes of the invasions that devastated Ur from the Gutim, the Elamites, the Amorites, and the Hittites; for no doubt of old, just as today, Money Power was as busy arming the enemies of the people amongst whom it sojourned, as that people themselves. While scholars do not appear to have paid any special attention to this particular law, or to have attached any special significance, its true intent and purpose is clear to anyone conversant with the origins of private money issuance in modern times, as indicated by the familiar story of the goldsmith's multiple receipts.
Page 9 "If a man buys silver or gold or slave or ox or sheep or anything else from a free man or has received them for safe custody without witness or contract, that man is a thief; he shall be put to death." The requisite witnesses and contract attesting to the true facts of valuables on deposit would to some extent obviate the danger of the goldsmiths creating receipts for valuables that did not exist. Provided a corrupted priesthood turned a blind eye to this practice and loaned their sanction thereto, such fraudulent money or, in the misleading euphemism of a corrupted world, "credit", would be equally effective in foreign markets as in the home markets. The severity of the penalty would have been an absolute deterrent to such practice that since that time, and more especially in modern times since the 16th Century A.D., has become so indurated to a fixture.
Page 10 At the time of the promulgation of the Law of Hammurabai, both private property and private issued money seem to have been well established. It is to be assumed that ignorant of noble caste or otherwise were already deferring to that magic known as money in much the same manner as they did at all times through latter history when faced with the necessity of compromise with private money creative power whose activities had been permitted by foolish kings and to whom such kings had even committed the finances of the realm such as during the last four hundred years in England. In the time of Hammurabai, merchandising was by no means regarded as an end in itself, and a means whereby it was the right of ignoble men to proffer any corruption to the people so long as it made "profit" for them, and "interest" for the so-called bankers who supplied the original "finances" out of his secret and costless money- creative processes. Money lending still had not come to be a means whereby man-hating and therefore corrupt secret societies might seek to overturn the tree of life itself by way of sowing the seeds of decay in that true and natural order of life which had been ordained from time immemorial. Private money creators had at that time by no means arrived at that point where they might conspire to present complete defiance to the gods and their appointed and install jackasses in the places of the mighty, as too often was the case in the latter days.
CHAPTER II: THE TEMPLE AND THE COUNTING HOUSE
Page 11 Out of the vague shadows of war and power and peace emerged that force known as Classical Greece. Much of the revitalization derived from the increased availability of silver as a result of the expansion of the mining industry due to the increasing use of tools of hardened iron. This flood of precious metals gave rise, with the consequent strengthening of the shift of money creative, or total power center, from the god and the temple to what some might describe as the devil and the counting house, enabled those conspiratorial groups who undoubtedly controlled precious metal bullion supplies, the "Apiru" who seemingly belonged to no city, yet were to be found in them all, to set up a supra-national god as the fount of their secret power, a god who should be contemptuous of all other gods; living in no idols, he would be in all, and over all; unseen, but all pervading. (According to Professor W.F. Albright, "There was a large and apparently increasing class of stateless and reputedly lawless people in Palestine and Syria to whom the appellation "Apiru" was given. They were a class of heterogeneous ethnic origin and spoke different languages, often alien to the people in whose documents they appear." Apiru must mean "dusty ones" from the fact that the bearer of the designation trudges in the dust behind donkeys, mules and chariots. Thus it would appear that the restless "Apiru" of later times, mercenary soldier, bandit or smuggler, was the descendant of the donkey caravaneers who maintained the trade between the cities of the known world. Samuel Mercer refers to the use of the name "Habiru" at Babylon in the times of Hammurabai. The secret societies of a group known as "Haburah" seem to have existed beyond the times of the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.)
Page 12 If the god of such secret society or confederacy controlled movements of silver bullion internationally, he might well be contemptuous of all city gods other than himself, for when money values were based on his silver in such international exchanges, then he and his acolytes knew that all prosperity in the kingdoms depended on him, and whether he ordained through his servants that silver should be plentiful or otherwise; whether indeed there would be no money and hardship, or plenty of money and prosperity. In the latter days of declining temple power, prosperity would also depend on whether rulers turned a blind eye to that privately created ledger credit page entry money whose use the international money changers were undoubtedly promoting as facilitation to exchanges between select and secret groups of persons and so would strengthen themselves and their one-God all-powerful, all omnipotent...
Page 13 The ruthless and stern edicts of such princes as Hammurabai of Babylon, while perhaps effective in Babylon, would not avail in all those cities to which the money changers undoubtedly carried their arts, especially if they were not subject to the rule of Babylon. Who knows to what extent the seizure of Ur by Hammurabai was the result of his determination to extirpate the source of this attack on kingly power. That close to the throne were those who secretly held in contempt the god-king is clear from the following excerpt from Wooley in respect of his discovery of the tombs of the kings of the IIIrd dynasty at Ur: "The tomb had been robbed just as the earth was about to be put in; nobody would have dared when the pit was still in use, nor, if such sacrilege had been done, would the bricks have been left scattered on the floor and the breach unfilled. The robbers must have chosen their moment when the inviolable earth would at once hide all traces of the crime and they could afford to be careless." On the ramp leading down to the king's tomb would have lain the bodies of those who had elected to accompany their Lord into the regions beyond. It would have been almost impossible for such carefully timed robbery to have taken place over the bodies of those who would be amongst the first ladies of the court and certain officials without there having been a well planned conspiracy.
Page 14 When the robbery was effected, it is clear they were already dead, there had to be connivance of certain persons in high places to whom this great devotion was without meaning. Such gold and silver would have been useless and a dangerous possession except to those to whom it meant money and power internationally and by whom it could be melted and rapidly transformed abroad. The famous temple of Solomon was not only used as a treasury but, as in Babylonia, as a bank. The arts of banking were in no way as developed as they were in Babylonia and Assyria. Amongst the Apiru, undoubtedly confederates of the Israelites in later times, were clearly many refugees from the cruel debt slavery existing in Babylonia during the 2nd Millennium. Apart from the firm laws in respect to the taking of interest, the Jubilee of the 50th year (Leviticus 24.II), if fully enforced, would render any efforts to create monopoly ineffective. Thus it can be seen that the God in his holy shrine ruled in the same way in that ancient Hebrew kingdom.
Page 15 The Greek sanctuary owed existence to similar forces that had given rise to the temples of Mesopotamia and to the temple of Solomon. Functioning in like manner, clearly it originated from those distant days when the priesthood considered themselves as the direct representatives of the gods on earth, the shepherds appointed to the flock.
Page 16 The temple of each small city in Greece may have functioned as did the great temples of the powerful city states of earlier days, and money, that is the law controlling exchanges as to a common denominator of values, may have come into existence as entry in the temple ledger, although how represented in the circulation does not seem to be clearly known. The notion of exchanges being conducted in terms of cattle cannot be accepted as that which created an exchange amongst the common people of the city civilizations. It is clear that local tribes such as the Bushmen of South Africa have been conversant with the basic principles of money as pieces of certain shell, cut according as tradition demanded.
Page 17 It may reasonably be expected that the intelligent Indo-Europeans from whom stemmed the Greeks were equally conversant with such principles; even if later they came to forget them. According to the Cambridge Ancient History: "Ivory beads in countries now devoid of elephants suggest either wide range of movement or some form of exchange." The graves of Sungir reveal similar mammoth ivory beads proven to be 23,000 years old or more. During the old kingdom of Egypt when "numberings" of all accepted as wealth and possession were taken every two years, and therefore books kept, a most refined system of distribution of surpluses and therefore creation of exchanges must have existed. The connection between such system and the "scarabs" seems to have been generally dismissed. That scarabs have been found in their hundreds in places far removed from Egypt indicates significance far removed from their use as ornaments. The agents of Babylonian Money Power would themselves have promoted establishment of the temple nucleus to the city state. It was the form of government they understood best and they knew how to control and subvert it if necessary. Just as the similar secret money creative force heads directly for the seat of government itself in this day and age, and once it becomes fully lodged and acknowledged, in the same way as with the establishment of the Bank of England in 1694 and the Federal Reserve Bank in 1913, two instances with which we are most familiar, it penetrates right into the heart of the treasury, so it was in that day.
Page 18 As amongst the original aristocracy of Greece would be little enough sympathy for the smooth subtleties of those newcomers originating from the countinghouses of the Phoenician, Aramean or Babylonian Cities, it would not be to the natural political leaders that these newcomers would address themselves in the first place, but to the priesthood, those who controlled the temple, the advisors and guides to such rulers. Just as in today, such priesthood is too often composed of men of little understanding of the realities of financial life and who lend themselves almost eagerly to any power with sufficient front to offer them more than the god they represent, so it was in that day. Thus the cities that rose out of the industrial awakening of Greece had all the appurtenances of the sacred city state of more ancient days. However, too often during the last three hundred years, kingship has become little more than a front giving legality to such money as circulates, bearing as it does, the profile of the ruler who so often has been unwitting co-conspirator, if only as essential instrument, with that money power, totally international in character, which has nowadays largely replaced kingly power as the true ruler, so it was that the temple became a front for the international money creative force of that day and age; connected closely with the trade in precious metals and slaves as it must have been.
Page 19 Thus, as the distant heir to this temple of ancient days, the temple of the Greek city state in the 1st Millennium B.C. was still a place looked up to as the abode of the gods; even if that economic power by which, as the expression of the benevolent will of the god, it had controlled the total existence men, was now exercised by an external and indifferent force, alien to Greek and with whom it connived against its own adherents. The temple of Apollo at Delos had become merely a front for the economic purposes of a secret fraternity whose concern was money changing, silver bullion and the slave trade.
Page 20 These persons had conducted their business in the shade of the temple courtyards from ancient days as might give sanctity to their activities which so often were exercised against the well-being of the people who sheltered them. Such activities were frequently concerned with the movements of bullion, the factor most of all giving rise to instability and therefore so necessary to the full exploitation of the people. The island of Delos, although virtually infertile and without special advantages such as natural harbors, due to gifts of pilgrims visiting the temple of Apollo and the deposits of the cities, "trapezitae" and leading citizens, became very rich; a great center of trade and banking, and above all, a center for the great slave trade from which almost none were safe. (Plato was reputed to have been sold as a slave for 20 minae.) Oskar Seyffert, in Dictionary of Classical Antiquities wrote: "Delphi, Delos, Ephesus and Samos were much used as banks for loans and deposits both by individuals and governments." Therefore, the great sanctuary functioned very much the same way, from the economic standpoint, as the central bank in this day. The agents of International Money Power, as used by the priesthood to take care of the fiscal dealings of the temple and to whom was farmed out the credit of the temple, must have fully understood that the priesthood had betrayed their high calling. These agents would have lurked as only faintly discernible shadows behind the temple facade although they instigated much of what came to pass in those days. By maintaining the position of the priesthood, they maintained themselves and their secret power for whatever they brought about, especially if of evil, it may safely be assumed, the priesthood would be held responsible.
Page 21 Hence the people never questioned the existence of the temple but as the place where the will of god was exercised through his servants. That it had come to function more as instrument in the capacity of front for an international power concerned largely with money creation and the control of the slave trade was something they never came to fully understand. No more in this day do those who toil on through the few years of their lives realize that the governments that they so naively believe are theirs are but a wavering shadow. The absolute reality of sovereign power only obtainable through total control over monetary creation and emission and cancellation is not theirs. They but function as standards but which international money creative forces create the world's money in a given area. Therefore, this economic power would not only derive from those loans in precious metals but also from the fact that those very secret fraternities understanding fully the principles of Ledger Credit Page Entry Money, operated under it's patronage. There can be no doubt that the principles of monetary inflation, or better put, abstract money creation, were well understood to the "trapezitae" or professional bankers to whom the Temple at Delos apparently delegated these functions;
Page 22 And equally known was how easily merchants could be trained to make payments by cheque drawn on account consisting of supposed deposits with a recognized banker. Thus no transfer of actual silver need have been involved and what is now euphemistically described as the fractional reserve system (a swindle indurated into a system!) was operated. The enormous volume of exchanges that could be carried on without the movement of one drachma of silver, and consequently the monopolization of trade and industry and subsequent control over the whole world and its affairs that could be brought about at literally no real cost, provided those dealing in money changing and financial matters maintained close solidarity, was known to the bankers. The tremendous entre-pot trade of Delos, especially in slaves, could not derive from anything else other than the acceptance of the "Credit" of the temple from the hands of these aliens. These men would be skilled money changers bred and trained in the ancient financial sophistication of the cities of Babylonia, Aram, Phoenicia,etc. They would be fully conversant with the possibilities inherent in such ledger credit page entry money and whose successful functioning as an abstract inflation of the number of units of silver they claimed to control, depended on secrecy and solidarity amongst themselves, and above all, on the patronage of the corrupted temples.
Page 23 This flow of silver to Delos would have enabled Delos to partially replace Athens during the 3rd century B.C. as the new center from which international money power came to control the finances of the Eastern Mediterranean. Professor Rostovtsev refers to a purchase of grain in Delos by a Sinotes of Histicaea, a subject city of Macedonia in which he observes that the purchase was made out of money advanced by a Rhodian banker. This suggests that the banking of Rhodes was interlocked with that of Delos and that those silver reserves of the Temple of Apollo functioned also as reserve to Rhodian banking. Delos, because of its sanctity would constitute a much safer store house for precious metal hoards than ever Rhodes might be. Previous references to banking in Grecian cities as being conducted by aliens are also verified by Rostovtsev. The question therefore arises "What aliens?" Would they be members of the same fraternity of men who were standing almost above mankind in their manipulation of powers that not so long previously had been reserved solely to the gods and exercised through a dedicated priesthood? Such power being lost to kings forever when they permitted the institution of accounting to a silver standard.
Page 24 The latter days of Delos and the Temple of Apollo when 10,000 slaves were shipped abroad in one day alone would certainly suggest the existence as controllers of its economic affairs a class of persons internationally minded and utterly callous to the sufferings of the mixture of broken races that passed before it on the way to the slave stockades. Although slavery previous to the 4th century B.C. had been more in the nature of a benign custom similar to the custom of the bonded servant or apprentice of the 18th century in Northern Europe, after the Macedonian conquests it became a custom in no way so benign and herding of all kinds of persons formerly free, day in and day out, on to the ships of the day, could not have been accomplished but with whip and chain, and families being torn apart without compunction or compassion and little children defenseless against the abuse of monsters. While the facts of the Temple of Apollo at Delos are relatively clear, supposition of the existence of the Temple of Athene at Athens as being under the secret control of the bankers, while not being so clear, is logical. The reserve of 6000 talents of coined silver stored in the Acropolis at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War would certainly seem to indicate that the Temple loaned itself to that major activity of so-called bankers, the creation of abstract money, and shielded them in their very carefully guarded secret that most money circulating between merchants within and without the Athenian empire was that which was created as by ledger credit page entry. The silver reserve would have been the banker's window dressing and served to take care of day to day expenses. The Peloponnesian War ended no more than little over a hundred years before the time of Alexander. According to A. Andreades in his essay on the war finances of Alexander the Great, total expenditures per annum at the time of the crossing of the Hellespon were 5000 - 7000 talents. This was the expenses of an army far from home and to which little credit would have been available and most disbursements would have been paid in solid metal.
Page 25 It is therefore out of the question to consider whether 6000 talents of silver were adequate for the total finances of the Peloponnesian War over ten years. If all disbursements had been in silver, it is doubtful if such a so-called reserve could have lasted six months. This silver was merely the foundation of that illusion that those baked clay facsimiles of Greek coinages which circulated so well between merchants and governments were redeemable in silver coin; just as the last three hundred years in the British Empire all the Queen's loyal subjects have believed that every bank note in circulation was redeemable in gold!
Page 26 On the subject of such fiduciary currencies in ancient times, particularly Athenian, Francois Lenormant wrote: "Cedrenus claims that the Romans had wooden money in very ancient times; but this tradition can probably be relegated to the domain of fables with the Roman money of clay of which Suidas writes. However it could be that this last information is connected with several types of assignat briefly used at the time and which could not have been emitted by public authority. Clay molds of silver and gold currencies of various countries are frequently found in Athens. The learned Sicilian Numismatist Antonio Salinas, during his stay in Greece, collected a large number of these monuments, either as originals or molds or drawings. The purpose of this special class of objects that are of course connected with numismatics is very obscure. But it can be conjectured that such pseudo-currencies of baked clay molded from existing types of money had a fiduciary circulation of quite a private character, however, similar to that of the credit notes whose emission as authorized in certain countries by particular institutions." In other words, the clay facsimiles functioned in much the same manner as did bank notes over the last three hundred years in the Anglo-Saxon world; they were money, privately created and emitted. Francois Lenormant lived at a time when relatively little was realized by numismatists of the functions of "Ledger Credit Page Entry Money," or often enough of money itself as being so many numbers injected into circulation amongst the people, either as pure abstraction and functioning as by transfer of such ledger credit page entry, or as tangible record on clay, paper, copper, silver, or gold.
CHAPTER III: PER ME DEI REGNANT
Page 27 The city states of the rulers of Troy, Tyryns, Mycenae and cities and states without number and of which not even the name or memory now remains, too often, finally went down into smoking ruin before the deluge of wild men, men such as the wearer of the golden mask whose grave was opened by Heinrich Schlieman in his excavations at Mycenae and who he believed to be Agamemnon sleeping his everlasting sleep. Buried sword in one hand, with the other, this giant amongst men still clutched in death as in life those disks of gold which so obviously were storehouse of wealth and power. Thus it is clear that by permitting gold to be equated with wealth, or that which had been money, his law alone, merely a device of transferable numbers to assist and give order to the exchanges amongst his people, this god-king was already surrendering his might, and the freedoms of his peoples, to those inscrutable shadows that lurked in the dimness of the distant Babylonian counting houses. To these rulers, power was already in the merchant's and the master miner's precious metal pieces. With such precious metals as they stripped from the bodies of the living and dead in those cities they had so gleefully sacked and put to sword, when peace came again, they were able to purchase those items of luxury and obtain the finest arms that skilled craftsmen could fashion.
Page 28 Rings and disks and tiny axes as found at Troy, all of gold, and the four hundred round pieces of gold and the one hundred and fifty golden disks found in the toms of Mycenae (dating from 1500 B.C.) all clearly represented some form of exchange or money. Spirals of gold adjusted to the small Aegean gold talent of 8.5 grams which he classified as the Aegean gold unit imply the use of a gold unit in international exchanges even at this early time. (It is interesting to note that amongst so much precious metal was also found a large number of oyster shells and unopened oysters. At the time of Schlieman's diggings, nothing was known of the extensive use of shell money in ages long gone by but it is quite clear that the oyster shells belonged to a day already nearly forgotten when shells were money. In the I Ching, one of the earliest books of the Chinese, 100,000 dead shell fish are given as an equivalent of riches.)
Page 29 Spiral or ring money during the reign of Pepi II, Pharaoh during the 6th Dynasty, may have been one of the factors by which the International Money Power of the time, in whatever form it existed, brought about the total collapse of kingly rule in Egypt in the years subsequent to the death of this ruler. The Hebrew records also appear to verify this use of metal rings or spirals being used in settlement of trade balances between foreigners or of being storehouses of wealth. There is no mention of gold money in ancient Hebrew records though gold constituted part of the wealth of Abraham, undoubtedly refugee from Ur about the time of its destruction by the Gutim. The 600 shekels of gold by weight paid by David for oxen of Ornan and the 6000 shekels of gold taken by Naaman on his journey to the King of Israel do not imply money. Gold was generally employed for personal ornamentation and for adornment of the temple. It is therefore probable that a system of jewel currency or ring money was in use.
Page 31 Stone weights were already marked with their equivalence in such rings. The circulation as money of these "promises to pay" recorded on stone pointedly suggests the likelihood of the activities of a secret fraternity whose hereditary trade was private money creation.
Page 32 It would appear that the money used by the children of Jacob when they went to purchase corn in Egypt was ring money. Their money is described as "bundles of money" as verified in Deuteronomy "Then shalt thou turn it into money and bind up the money in thine hand." The Greek city state wealth was already assessed in terms of the weight of their store of precious metals which would be so eagerly accepted in exchange for the products of the master armorers employed by the bankers who already controlled trade and money creation in those cities of the Ancient Oriental.
Page 33 The peasant king at Mycenae or Troy, for all his seeming rock- like strength, necessarily existed as instrument of those who manipulated gold or silver supplies internationally, and at the same time the slave market; men of a class who, in that control of prices which they so clearly exercised, were able to control prosperity in all those seemingly powerful states that had accepted the international valuation of silver as the factor determining internal or national values. They may have been, as it seems they are today, a close knit conspiratorial group threaded through the priest and scholar class of these cities, though not themselves of such origin. The answer may be found to lie in the existence in very ancient Sumeria of a privileged class, who, having access to the "credit" of the temple, thus were able to control the masters of the great donkey caravans who carried such "credit." These persons must have functioned as bullion broker and banker, would have been fully clear on the subject of silver and its function in settlement of foreign trade balances and its use as a standard on which to base money accounting.
Page 34 We must look to the professional caravaneers for widespread dissemination of the knowledge of the possibilities of private money creation deriving from a clear understanding of the meaning of accounting to a silver standard and later the potentialities towards development of monopoly trade inherent in the actual use of silver as the material on which the numbers of the abstract unit were stamped. The full extent of the possibilities towards the accumulation of wealth through exploitation of varying ratios between silver and gold in different parts of the world and the possibilities of a private and secret expansion of the total monetary circulation may also have been known to them. As such accounting to a silver standard had long been known in the lands of Sumer and Akkad, control of values had long since been in the hands of the silver bullion brokers and the money lenders and bankers. Through bullion they controlled money and through money creation on that bullion as base, they controlled manufacturers.
Page 35 Thus it seems that where the conception of money as to a silver standard existed as at Ugarit and Alalakh, so also existed the private manufacture of arms under methods of mass production. It is not without significance that this early era of privately issued money and consequent private industry, particular that devoted to arms manufacture, was in certain areas so coincidental with the massive movements of warlike peoples, and the collapse of ancient empires. Conquering peoples needed the best arms The best arms were obtainable from private industry; and private industry needed silver or gold or labor which was slaves, in payment. Both were obtainable as the result of war. Therefore, parallel, the more war, the more the industry and the more the need for the products of the money creators' ledgers. Hence became the more absolute control of that which most of all designs industry and its accompanying slavery in one form or another, namely, private money creative power.
Page 36 Controlling labor as they did through control of the slave trade, they were in a position to have manufactured in some scale the finest weapons for those rulers who collaborated with them and served their best purposes. With such total money control, they were in a position to withhold the best of weapons from those who served them the least. In a world that had come to believe in money as an absolute, such was the position long ago, exactly as in today. Thus the state that rejected international money power, as did Sparta and Rome in ancient times, and Russia in modern times, had to be prepared to establish total military self-sufficiency. Hydsos entered the Delta regions of Egypt establishing total military supremacy through the use of horse and chariot, previously unknown in Egypt. The evidences of the Ugarit and Alalakh tablets indicating semi-mass production in these areas of chariot parts and arms of various kinds cannot but suggest that it was from this region that money power armed those restless people that may have inundated Crete in earlier times and Egypt somewhat later. The persistence of the thrust of Tahutmes III into these regions would indicate no idle pointless advance but definite design towards destroying the heart of the enemy, the elimination of his financial and industrial centers.
Page 37 However, that both sides had equal access to the international arms industry would be indicated by the spoil as won by Tahutmes against the King of Kadesh amounting to 924 chariots and 200 suits of armor. It is very doubtful Tahutmes would have moved abroad without careful organization and planning. To build his 1000 chariots was needed the wood of Lebanon and Syria, the craftsmanship of Ugarit and financial and industrial organization.
Page 38 Thus it would appear that money creative power had definitely re-established some form of agency in Egypt. In agreement between Tahutmes and Tyre demonstrates concessions made to traders in order to obtain the sea-power which he so much needed for the success of his campaign against Kadesh. The fact of gold and silver rings circulating in Egypt indicates the nature of his concessions to that money creative force which undoubtedly drove the world-wide trade of the Phoenician cities. The gifts in silver bullion from the Hittites indicate that they knew that which would be most welcome to the Pharaoh. By the time of Rameses III (1198-1167 B.C.), the true force behind kingly rule had long ago been gathered up by those promoting the conception of private ownership derived from that right these persons had already arrogated to themselves to create and manipulate the monetary unit, tangible or abstract.
Page 39 International money power of the day deemed it safe to locate its most important industry, armaments, in the land of Egypt. Ancient ways and morale gave way to foreign influences and self- immolation that always seems to follow the advent of the penetration of international money creative force. Such money creative force and its key arms manufacturies so much needed by the war powers would always continue to maintain itself, come what may. Possibly its heartland was some area such as Switzerland today, that by tacit consent of all powers remained neutral in all this strife and whose neutrality would always be respected by the armed force of each of the struggling states.
Page 40 Money power in control of the movements of bullion internationally, safe behind this shield of neutrality as designers of the international money market, would be able to continue to manipulate war industries; always remaining in a position to allocate the latest of weapons to those states which offered them the best advantage in respect to their particular affair. The rulers of Egypt after Tahutmes, although probably completely unaware of the extent of the power of this same international force, obviously needed its good graces when it came to obtaining those materials and weapons so necessary for what in that time was modern warfare. It was not long before international power penetrated the substructure of Egyptian life and established its usual behind-the-scenes influence, if not control, in much the same way as when the stone weights of the 6th Dynasty indicating equivalence in metal money circulated in much the same way as the clay facsimiles or as the paper notes of today that formerly indicated a claim on precious metal. Further indication of the activities of private money creative force in this same period exists in the evidence of an extensive world-wide trade on land and sea.
Page 41 The military might of those grim warriors of Mycenae continued to grow and they clearly could be relied on to supply the master moneyers with gold and silver and slaves. Therein these robber rulers, best known from the Homeric sagas, were but the instruments by which the mysterious worshipers of the anti-god, the controllers of the extensive money creative force, unseen, but all-seeing, slowly undermined the walls of the temple states of the ancient world so finally and completely that little memory or record existed. What, therefore, did the international money creative fraternity of that day need from those states that clearly forbade their trade or settlement as corrupters of all true order and peace in life and that thus rejected their blandishments?
Page 42 What other than the plunder out of sack and ruin by those wildmen they brought in from distant lands to North and to South. And to whom they offered the women, gardens, gold and the silver; which of course would soon be theirs in any case. Of all those cities and states without number and many without name, why they disappeared, or when, is not known; nor the story of the ending. For as at Pylos and Ugarit too, in so many cases, the flames were the final gesture of fate which made durable the clay libraries and archives. It is clear that the organization of all those Western and Northern peoples in confederation against Egypt's Pharaoh Merneptah (1236 B.C.) was not of haphazard design. All these nations known as "The Peoples of the Sea" could not have been brought together together as a fairly disciplined group without some more internationally wise advisors. Whether Egypt fell or the confederate host fell, either way was profit to the international bullion traders whose agents would have equally followed Egyptian or confederate. After his victory, Merneptah almost immediately turned his attention to the peoples of the East. He paid special attention to an Israel never previously referred to in Egyptian history.
Page 43 But who was who, or why, or what, little concerned that brain center in Babylon or Ur or wherever it was. Out of death and destruction was their harvest. The only reality was control of precious metal. Out of death and destruction came the releasing of the all important hoards of stored bullion and the renewal of the slave herds to be consumed in mining ventures in distant places, garnering the increase of such precious metals. (Diodorus Siculus (A. Del Mar: A History of Precious Metals) gives a striking picture of the horrors of marginal profit gold mining as carried out with slave labor in ancient times in the Nubia in B.C.50: "There are thus infinite numbers thrown into these mines, all bound in fetters, kept a work night and day, and so strictly surrounded that there is no possibility of their effecting an escape. They are guarded by mercenary soldiers of various barbarous nations, whose language is foreign to them and to each other, so that there are no means of forming conspiracies or of corrupting those who are set to watch them. They are kept at incessant work by the rod of the overseer who often lashes them severely. Not the least care is taken of the bodies of these poor creatures; they have not a rag to cover their nakedness; and whoever sees them must compassionate their melancholy and deplorable condition, for though they may be sick maimed or lame, no rest nor any intermission of labor is allowed them. Neither the weakness of old age nor the infirmities of females excuse any from the work, to which all are driven by blows and cudgels; until borne down by the intolerable weight of their misery, many fall dead in the midst of their insufferable labors. Deprived of all hope, these miserable creatures expect each day to be worse than the last and long for death to end their sufferings.") Further, as kingly rule weakened, with the increasingly circulation of fraudulent receipts for precious metals supposedly on deposit, this highly secretive interstratum of merchant classes controlled by these monopolists of money through monopoly of control of precious metal bullion would be able to finance much larger manufacturing systems than had been possible from the highly discriminating temple loans of earlier days.
Page 45 While the purpose of the temple was to cause the people to live godly lives, the secret and private money creative power, being more concerned with the opposite, the needs of the anti-god, the destruction of the peoples lives, loaned without such discrimination. Out of the resulting confusion amongst rulers could come nothing but advantage to themselves and their purposes; out of the break up of family and home and tradition would come an exhausted and confused people, more ready to accept slavery. Corruption of the priesthood, as in today, was the chief aim of the money conspiracy. The international bullion controllers needed the connivance of those corrupted temple officials who had lost sight of the meaning of the god-given power of money creation which had been theirs. By the time these temple officials were brought to enter into such connivance, they would be past realizing or caring about the destructive effects of their powers and purposes which lay in so permitting private issuance of money amongst the people by way of precious metals or receipts for such metals supposedly on deposit.
Page 46 With the growth of exchanges to a silver standard as would derive from the circulation of false receipts issued against silver on deposit, these men, controllers of bullion movements internationally, and of almost equal consequence, the slave trade, now that their knowledge of the frauds relating to the use of precious metal money and their knowledge of that which is now known as "capital" was becoming perfected, were bringing into being extensive private industries, the most important of which relating to war. Those receipts representing the weight of silver which circulated by custom or by law, as money, while accepted as money, were money. Their cost to the money manipulators, bullion brokers, being but that of the clay in the tablet and the scribes entry thereon. After the final triumph of the international money creative fraternity which may be identified in Mesopotamia with that period of conquest, reconquest, and conquest again that began with that invasion of Sumeria by the Gutim in 2270 B.C. and ended with the collapse of the Empire of Ur in 2020 B.C., those agents of International Money Power quickly concluded the work of destruction through liberalism and permissiveness so that by 1900 B.C. the Sumerian had totally lost his national and racial identity with no special allegiance to anything other than "money."
Page 47 Such agents are shown by the general evidence of history to be a class of dubious origins. These rascals who are raised up in a time of national exhaustion by a triumphant money power, too often are distinguished by a readiness to please those who it seems to them are the masters. The growing manufacturies of Mesopotamia, Syria, Egypt, were instigated as a result of those secret money creative processes known only to that class of persons controlling external trade.
Page 48 By the time of the Assyrian conquest during the first half of the first Millennium B.C., money, as being the creation of the god of the city toward the well-being and good life of his people, had become silver injected into circulation by private persons who, by then, through manipulation of that inverted pyramid of ledger credit page entry money erected on the silver they claimed to hold in reserve, as apex, had now completely usurped the essential power of the temple: the creation and allocation of the unit of exchange. The power of rejection or preferment formerly exercised through the king and priesthood fell into their hands, and where in earlier days a devoted king exercised its preferment through money creation towards the people's well-being, those international forces that now exercised the reality of such rule from the counting houses, contemptuous of all kingly and godly power as they were, but still needing such power as front behind which they might shelter in order to better pursue their nefarious purposes, spread hate and suspicion, each man of his brother.
Page 49 Secretly promoting the concept of "Permanent Revolution" as being most suited toward the maintenance of their control, no sooner did stable government come again then, feverishly digging at its roots, they tore it down. Out of the break-up of family and home, they throve. He who was consumed with animal desires and ignobility of purpose was their man and eagerly their slave, and willing betrayer of his brethren into what was planned for them by his master. Even though certain priesthood continued to maintain vigorous temple organizations long after the international control came about, such organizations continued to exist only on account of their deference to these new controllers of international exchanges. In a similar manner did the Egyptian priesthood defer to the power of Joseph as Vizier of the Pharaoh. For Joseph was clearly an agent of an external Money Power and while the Pharaoh leaned on him, he and that force behind him were clearly the rulers, de facto if not de jure, they were in the place of the Pharaoh.
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